The Economics of Pollution Havens
, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
(13.) Of course, identifying pollution havens
is a methodologically difficult task, and economists continue to debate the existence and magnitude of pollution-haven effects (Kellenberg 2009).
"While my research confirmed cheap labor was a factor driving the Made-in-China boom, I also uncovered the widespread use of sweatshops and pollution havens
- neither of which are banned by WTO rules," Navarro wrote in an (http://www.sfchronicle.com/opinion/article/My-journey-to-Trumpland-9185793.php) op-ed for San Francisco Chronicle in August.
(121) In this vein, Cole and Elliott conclude: "We do not suggest that pollution havens
are widespread." (122)
Drawing on the concept of "pollution havens
"--places in the global South that attract the worst industrial excess of the North's production and consumption--I introduce the concept of "mandate havens." In a "mandate haven," a Northern body will pass a law mandating environmental protection; its implementation, however, may have (perhaps unintended) detrimental impacts in the South.
These countries worry that a change in policies could lead to the relocation of industries in countries with lower standards, so called pollution havens
. However, recent studies in the World Bank report Greening Growth: a Path to Sustainable Development, show that environmental policies have little impact on competitiveness and there is no evidence that they lead to job losses due to an exodus of firms to pollution havens
"Trade liberalization and pollution havens
," In: Fullerton, D.
Countries that are poor relative to their neighbors may serve as pollution havens
and thus have higher emission levels.
Moreover, open registries present a potentially easier form of encouraging industrial movement than do standard pollution havens
. From the perspective of shipowners, registration in an open registry does not require physically relocating an industry; it simply means changing the flag flown and the port indicated on the stern.
Scott Taylor first introduced a complete model of pollution havens
, The B.