The Economics of Pollution Havens
, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Of course, identifying pollution havens
is a methodologically difficult task, and economists continue to debate the existence and magnitude of pollution-haven effects (Kellenberg 2009).
While my research confirmed cheap labor was a factor driving the Made-in-China boom, I also uncovered the widespread use of sweatshops and pollution havens
- neither of which are banned by WTO rules," Navarro wrote in an (http://www.
121) In this vein, Cole and Elliott conclude: "We do not suggest that pollution havens
Although some authors question the empirical evidence for pollution havens
, (29) others cite clear evidence that businesses do, in fact, pollute elsewhere when it becomes too expensive to comply with pollution regulations back home.
These countries worry that a change in policies could lead to the relocation of industries in countries with lower standards, so called pollution havens
Trade liberalization and pollution havens
," In: Fullerton, D.
Countries that are poor relative to their neighbors may serve as pollution havens
and thus have higher emission levels.
On the other hand, the pollution havens
hypothesis reflects the fears of a displacement of industries from developed to developing countries in order to take advantage of lower environmental compliance costs.
Scott Taylor first introduced a complete model of pollution havens
, The B.
Kahn & Yutaka Yoshino, Testing for Pollution Havens
Inside and Outside of Regional Trading Blocs, ADVANCES ECON.
The mere existence of pollution havens
has been thoroughly debated.