It was for these reasons that 'Polish nationalism
' was a contradiction in terms for Proudhon.
All who care about the Holocaust and most especially about its iconographic site--the anti-sacred, sacred site--would do well to read this work, as would journalists who want to get beyond sensationalism and understand the roots of the controversies that have exploded from time to time and added so much tension to Polish-Jewish relations and to the tension between Polish nationalism
and the Polish state.
He had received an Orthodox Jewish early education, but close family connections had exposed him to both Polish nationalism
and German high culture.
The dominance of "Polish" industry by foreign capital, the absence of a large and ethnically Polish capitalist entrepreneurial class, the role of the intelligenstia as the core political force in Polish life, the impossibility of legal party formation in Russian Poland before 1905, and the rise of modern Polish nationalism
were all factors that in the larger context of the country's capitalist transfomation would sharply distinguish the Polish discourse on women from its west European counterparts and long endow the women's movement with a dual, if not split, personality combining patriotism and feminism.
The armed uprising as a response to Russian occupation was one aspect of the manifestation of Polish nationalism
. The idea of what it meant to be "Polish" was debated under various ideological labels which encompassed aspects of contemporary debate, and traditions inherited from the past.
But for many on the left, Poland's independence and Polish nationalism
were in themselves barriers to revolution.
Like Gombrowicz, Pankowski pokes fun at cliche-ridden Polish nationalism
and its passion for myth-making.
The scenario is nearly always the same, and so are the ingredients: Polish nationalism
, Jewish "anti-Polonism" (that is, ostensible libels on the integrity and honor of the Polish nation), "international Jewish finance" and the Polish Catholic Church.
His uneven but enduring works influenced other writers to support Polish nationalism
. His writings include nine novels dealing with the issue of serfdom, seven historical novels set against the background of Poland under the Saxon kings, and a cycle of 29 novels covering Polish history.
He donated a large part of the proceeds from his concerts to the cause of Polish nationalism
. In 1919 he was chosen premier of the new Polish Republic, returned to the concert stage in 1920, but rejoined the Polish government as president of parliament after it was exiled by the invasion of 1939.
During the Nazi occupation of Germany, with Chopin a symbol of Polish nationalism
, his heart was removed from the church and gifted to Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski, a high-ranking SS officer who purportedly enjoyed Chopin's music, according to the Guardian.
, it seems, was not the only--or the most important--identity that Poles adopted.