Table 3 showed a statistically increase in the MID [%] from a mean value of [9.31 [+ or -] 1.91%] in nonsmokers group to about [12.36 [+ or -] 4.69%], [9.88 [+ or -] 1.54%], for water pipe smokers
, cigarette smokers groups respectively.
Only a small number of hookah pipe smokers
noticed any health effects attributable to their smoking, which suggests that the effects are not readily apparent.
Three groups of smokers, including 57 water pipe smokers
, 30 deep inhalation cigarette smokers (S-DI), and 51 normal inhalation cigarette smokers (S-NI) were identified and studied.
The observation is often made that pipe smokers
are all of a certain temperament, that not just any man can be a pipe smoker
Spokesman Simon Evans was quick to point out that actor and novel list Stephen Fry won the Pipe Smoker
of the Year Award in 2003.
"I believe that pipe smoking contributes to a somewhat calm and objective judgment in all human affairs," he said in 1950 at age 71, when he became a lifetime member of the Montreal Pipe Smokers
As the number of pipe smokers
in Europe and America continues to decline (and few Turks have ever smoked meerschaum pipes) the future of Eskisehir's pipe-carving industry does not look bright.
Investigations involving pipe smokers
did not show such clear results.
There are many people that use knives in their daily routine: gardeners, campers, pipe smokers
, gamekeepers, forestry workers, building trade workers, to name but a few.
There were no regular pipe smokers
among the participants.
But while only eight percent of non-smokers had gum disease, 30 percent of water pipe smokers
and 24 percent of cigarette smokers were affected.
The new research led by Jane Henley, from the American Cancer Society in Atlanta, Georgia, involved more than 15,000 current or former pipe smokers
and 123,000 men who had never smoked.