Using an expanded IS-LM framework to include the Pigou effect
, Kyer and Maggs (1992) also derived an expression for the price level elasticity of aggregate demand.
For example, and with respect to the real balance effect, also called the real wealth effect, the money wealth effect, and the Pigou effect
, aggregate demand will be more elastic for any given change in the price level the more responsive is consumption spending to the resulting change in real wealth, ceteris paribus.
Looking deep into the "Pigou Effect
" that models the propensity for rising wages, falling prices and consumption, that government intervention, tax policy and strategic subsides, for example, should be used to address market failures in a competitive environment makes sense.
In the latter case some might invoke the Pigou effect
(Grandmont's discussion 1983, pp.58-59), namely that the increased value of these forms of wealth would bring about a restoration of demand for goods and services.
Pigou later dismissed the "Pigou effect
" or "real balance effect" as an academic exercise, because a government would not employ a downward wage-price spiral as a means of increasing the real money supply.
To take one example, if, given a change in prices, there can be a change in excess real balances and/or a change in liquidity preference, then what happens in the real world is a function of the relative weight of the two tendencies, an empirical matter with actual results varying over time, and with interactions; one need not focus exclusively on an all-powerful Pigou effect
or Keynes effect.
(10) More specifically, our theory is that inflation indexed bonds, as a component of wealth and via the Pigou effect
, cause aggregate demand to become more inelastic with respect to the general price level.
It may happen in some circumstances but experience with deflation suggests that the stories told to generations of undergraduates about the Pigou effect
are just 'too fantastic for words'.
First, Hayes disposes of the Pigou effect
, brutally and succinctly, on the grounds that it applies only in a world with no debt and no bank money (pp.
However, it must be pointed out that the Pigou Effect
was not articulated until 1946.
These are (1) the Pigou effect
, whereby a rise in prices causes a decrease in real wealth, (2) the Keynes effect, where a rise in the price level decreases real money balances, causing a rise in real interest rates which, in turn leads to a fall in durable consumption and investment purchases, (3) the international price level effect, where a rise in prices decreases the international competitiveness of domestic goods, and (4) the intertemporal price effect, where higher prices cause people (consumers, businesses, and financial institutions) to substitute from consumption now to future consumption.