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Gainful employment. Strictly speaking, a job refers to employment by another person or company, but the word is often used to describe self-employment as well. Because individuals are compensated for their work at their jobs, these are considered necessary for a society to function. According to Keynesian economics, the money one earns from a job can create more jobs because the money creates demand for goods and services that must be provided. Supply-side economics, on the other hand, maintains that lower taxes are best for job creation.


  1. a work task or series of work tasks to be performed. For factory operatives the work tasks are often clearly defined as a specific set of machining or assembly operations. By contrast, at senior management level, work tasks are less clearly defined and managers have more discretion as to the range of tasks to be performed and how they are performed.
  2. a unit of good or service for which costs can be ascertained. The job or cost unit could consist of a single order. Alternatively, the job or cost unit could be a batch or group of identical products passing together through production.


a work task or series of work tasks to be performed in order to produce a good or service. Jobs differ in terms of skills, physical fitness, personality, etc., requirements, and in terms of the decision-making autonomy and responsibilities involved. Some jobs involve a wide-ranging set of work tasks while others may be broken down into a number of narrowly defined activities through a ‘division of labour’. Such SPECIALIZATION is often conducive to achieving high levels of labour PRODUCTIVITY in industries such as motor-car assembly that utilize mass production techniques. In other cases, productivity may be enhanced by grouping together larger numbers of work tasks to form individual jobs. Job design has an important effect on job satisfaction and thus levels of absenteeism, labour turnover, industrial disputes, etc., which affect productivity In some instances the process of specialization has been partially reversed by programmes of job enlargement (adding additional tasks to provide greater variety), 288

job rotation (where workers rotate jobs to reduce monotony) and job enrichment (where workers are given greater scope in deciding how tasks should be performed).

References in periodicals archive ?
The decline of the manufacturing sector over the past half century and the growing computerization of the workplace have likely reduced physical job demands, potentially enabling more older adults to remain at work.
Working at age in a physical job then being booted out because of your age isn't fair.
Mental and physical job strain in midlife were related to an increased need for hospital care and premature mortality, the researcher said.
Working in the ambulance service was a very physical job and I was also working as a scuba diving instructor, which I shouldn't have been doing with asthma.
Director Barry Purves added: "It's a surprisingly physical job.
And this, remember, in a physical job which involves concentration and manual dexterity.
The former housekeeper at the National Exhibition Centre, who had to keep hydrated with eye drops, mouth gel and a bottle of water, said: "I had a busy, very physical job and would come in and flop.
In fact, teaching snowboarding and skiing is a hard, physical job, and not one that its practitioners - who must also buy expensive equipment - get rich doing.
March 31 /PRNewswire/ -- As the job market floods with new talent, many job hunters are turning to virtual and physical job fairs to gain reach and visibility.
FORMER dockworker Lesley Bibby has swapped one physical job for another.
It's a physical job and there are a lot of hardships, but I absolutely love it.

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