performance appraisal


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performance appraisal

the process of considering and evaluating the performance of an employee with the objective of improving JOB performance. The information generated during appraisal can be used as a basis for measures to improve JOB SATISFACTION, career planning, MANPOWER PLANNING, TRAINING and as a basis for deciding levels of PAY.

Appraisal usually involves an employee and his immediate superior, although in some organizations employees appraise themselves (self-appraisal) or, much more rarely, are appraised by their immediate colleagues or subordinates. Whoever the appraiser, the focus of appraisal can take a number of forms:

  1. attitudes displayed at work. Experts believe this to be an undesirable form of appraisal since attitudes are not necessarily relevant to job performance whilst appraiser prejudice can bias the outcome;
  2. behaviour in work tasks, for example the proportion of incoming telephone calls answered in a period;
  3. meeting of objectives. These can be decided by the superior but in appraisal of managers it is usual for objectives to be agreed in advance (see MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES).

For the last especially, interviews are the main vehicle for appraisal. Although the information generated can itself be of great use, there is a tendency for appraisal to involve an assessment of individual performance and competence. Often performance is condensed into an overall rating, ranging from ‘excellent’ to ‘very poor’. Apart from the difficulties of producing such a rating – it often involves a judgemental leap from the data provided – this can introduce tension into the process. In so far as individuals feel they are on trial an element of distrust may enter the process and the validity of the information may become questionable.

These dangers become greater when pay is linked to the appraisal process (performance-related pay). Usually, the overall rating achieved will determine whether an employee receives a bonus (MERIT PAY) or is moved up the pay scale. This provides an incentive for individuals to exaggerate their achievement or to establish easily-met objectives, whilst the poor performer denied an increase is as likely to feel resentment as to be motivated to improve his or her performance. See CRITICAL INCIDENT TECHNIQUE, BEHAVIOURALLY-ANCHORED RATING SCALE, BEHAVIOURAL OBSERVATION SCALE.

References in periodicals archive ?
The report observes that the Performance Appraisal Software helps enterprises to secure employee performance standards and allow managers to assess employees' job performance respective of these standards.
Performance appraisal not only supports employees to understand their working abilities but it also helps the appraisers along with the organization as a whole and guides them to plan for the future.
Traditional approaches to the performance appraisal process have been met with opposition, as employers look for more constructive ways of evaluating performance.
Performance appraisal has lately become a more significant managerial tool in motivating and evaluating the workforce.
This study investigates twelve factors to find out if they create an impact on the performance appraisal system of the department of South Africa.
" The performance appraisal may also lead to the separation of some employees from the company and these numbers vary from year to year," it added.
Organizations are required to advance and preserve constructive performance appraisal experiences.
Prior research indicates that employee empowerment and performance appraisal process have positive relationship with OCB.
The employees feel competitive and keep on, work hard to do their best in the organizations and want to be the key performers of the organization so that during performance appraisal they will be highlighted as the key performers.
Additionally, contrary to another common criticism of the performance appraisal system, the paper finds that scores for individuals vary considerably over time, suggesting that initial human capital may not be as significant a factor in improved performance as one might suppose.
Director of Aviation Business Development and Performance Appraisal, Dubai Airport, Khalil Lamrabet was chief guest at the award distribution function.

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