Contributors from industry, academia, and government discuss such aspects as an integrative research framework, the continuum of pro-poor tourism and neoliberal governance, and impacts of private sectors and para-statal
enterprises in and around Kruger National Park in South Africa.
Most countries in the region needed to borrow to cover balance of trade deficits, but the new lending went to private companies and para-statal
companies; relatively little covered government deficits.
Directors and board members of all para-statal
organisations will also include people from other parties.
Mkandawire makes a related plea to focus more on the social and political histories of adjusting countries rather than the present emphasis on `winners' and `losers' which takes little or no regard of the ways in which adjusting governments may simply shift to form new political alliances with, for example, privatized para-statal
He was clear in his own mind that the unions were not para-statal
bodies and could not be asked to show self-restraint in their claims: To put this responsibility on the Unions is to reverse, or to attempt to reverse, their entire traditional function: to convert them from wage-bargaining organisations mainly concerned to advance the interests of the workers, and on this basis enjoying the loyalty of their members, into organisations primarily concerned with national economic policies.
From 1950 to 1970, the number of para-statal
firms in Mexico remained below 300; 12 years later, state-owned firms numbered 1,155.
6) and were also endowed with significant para-statal
organizations before independence.
"An inbuilt payment gateway will also add value by allowing all payments to be collected at one point and then apportioned, split and routed to the respective heads of account of Central / State / Para-statal
agencies along with generation of challans and MIS reports.
In addition, there are a number of South Africa para-statal
organisations, like the Development Bank of South Africa and the Industrial Development Corporation, that have long been advancing development funds to African undertakings.
A series of illustrative case-studies is presented, relating to the allocation of stateowned land; state-facilitated `market' access to privately-owned land; the reconstruction and partial privatization of a para-statal
development agency, which have brought into question the viability of a `community conservation' project and also exposed the agency to political cross-fire; and, finally, some intricacies of the possibility of land restitution to people dispossessed under apartheid, which raises the question of whether the concept of indirect racial discrimination may be applied in the South African context.
Less successful or failed reforms included the restructuring of para-statals
, reform of the agricultural credit system, budget reform, tax reform, and attention to the problems of recurrent expenditure.