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Related to Pain management: Chronic pain, Pain killers, Pain medication


The people who administer a company, create policies, and provide the support necessary to implement the owners' business objectives.
Copyright © 2012, Campbell R. Harvey. All Rights Reserved.


1. The persons or institutions that administer a company. That is, management has the responsibility to direct employees, set and enforce policies, and generally ensure that the company fulfills its goals (which management itself often sets). Management is responsible to the board of directors (of a publicly-traded company) and ultimately to the company's owners. In small companies, owners and managers are often the same people.

2. See: Asset management.
Farlex Financial Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All Rights Reserved


The process of organizing and directing human and physical resources within an ORGANIZATION so as to meet defined objectives. The key management roles are:
  1. planning how to carry out the various activities which are required to achieve the objective. This involves establishing an action programme (see BUSINESS PLAN) and an appropriate organization structure within which tasks can be subdivided (for example into production, personnel, marketing and finance); RESPONSIBILITY for them delegated; and PAY and reward systems instituted (see JOB DESIGN AND REDESIGN, WORK ORGANIZATION);
  2. CONTROL, by comparing current performance with that planned in order to monitor progress of the work. Such comparisons reveal where additional resources may be needed to achieve desired performance or when plans may need to be modified in the light of experience;
  3. COORDINATION of the tasks being undertaken, which involves synchronizing and balancing work loads and ensuring effective collaboration between the various DEPARTMENTS and GROUPS within the organization;
  4. MOTIVATION of the members of the organization, encouraging them to work effectively in performing their assigned task.

CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT THEORY portrayed management as a rational activity largely concerned with establishing routines and procedures for administering the work. More recently this emphasis has been questioned in a number of respects. Research has shown that much of the manager's working day is spent on tasks other than those suggested in this approach, for example attending retirement presentations, responding to telephone enquiries etc. Much of the manager's job involves ad hoc reactions to events. Other research has shown that managers ‘muddle through’, aiming at achieving satisfactory rather than optimum outcomes (see SATISFICING).

Recent writing on management has emphasized the LEADERSHIP aspect of the managerial function. The key issue here concerns the means by which managers can achieve effective performance from their subordinates. Two basic approaches are identified in the literature (on MANAGEMENT STYLE):

  1. task orientation, where managers' relationship with their subordinates is essentially directive, being primarily focused on getting the job done;
  2. people orientation, where managers show a greater concern for their subordinates' well-being, on the grounds that a contented workforce performs effectively.

Some believe that good leaders are born with certain personal qualities whilst others believe that these can be instilled through MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT. Whatever perspective is taken it should be remembered that leadership involves more than a leader: it also involves subordinates and a context. Good leadership is that which produces appropriate behaviour from others in particular situations. See ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS, BOARD OF DIRECTORS.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
Older adults may obtain the same amount of pain management as younger patients with a lower opioid dose; however, there is variability among individuals and doses should be titrated to effect (Macintyre, Scott, Shug, Visser, & Walker, 2010).
'You have to use a biopsychosocial approach, because the disease itself has so many implications, not the least of which is depression.' Equity in access to pain management remained a huge headache because only the luckier patients would get referred to a pain clinic that adopted the correct holistic, multidisciplinary approach.
Nurses who are more than 40 years old possess more knowledge towards pain management. However, this is in contrast in a study conducted by Jastrzab, Fairbrother, Kerr and McInerney (2004) entitled 'Profiling the 'Pain-Aware' Nurse: Acute Care Nurses' Attitudes and Knowledge Concerning Adult Pain Management', suggesting that the profile of a knowledgeable nurse on pain is a young and less experienced nurse.
Amjad Iqbal said that College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan has approved FCPS in pain management as subspecialty of anaesthesia.
Necessary indirect activities for pain management include documentation, monitoring effects of opioid-based interventions, or thinking time needed to individualize the plan of care.
We found that the level of Iranian nurses' knowledge about pain management in older patients was insufficient.
Porter's five forces model in the report provides insights into the competitive rivalry, supplier and buyer positions in the market and opportunities for the new entrants in the global pain management therapeutics market over the period of 2016 to 2024.
Since 2018, the Spindletop Pain Management Holdings and Tricity Pain Associates partnership has grown to 19 Pain Management providers across 13 clinics, including three ASCs in Texas.
[USPRwire, Thu Jun 13 2019] This report on the global topical pain management therapeutics in sports medicine market analyzes the current and future prospects of the market.
Included in the law is direction to the Department of Health and Human Services to provide technical assistance to hospitals and other acute care providers to develop and test alternative pain management protocols meant to limit the use of opioids, including such technologies as ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia and focused ultrasound therapy.
Better pain management is also a major element in addressing the current opioid crisis.