# PV

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## Present Value

The worth of a future amount of money at specific point in time. If one expects an investment to result in a cash flow at a certain time in the future, calculating the cash flow's present value will help the investor decide whether the investment results in a real profit. Calculating the present value assumes that the investor knows both the future amount and the applicable interest rate or rate of return. One discounts the interest rate or rate of return from the future amount in order to arrive at the present value. Mathematically, this is expressed as:

Ct = C(1 + i)-t where C is money, t is a number of years, and i is the interest rate or rate of return.

Present value of money is important in calculating bond yields, the value of annuities, and many other transactions. It is also used in comparing the value of two amounts of money existing in different times. See also: Adjusted for inflation.

## PV

References in periodicals archive ?
Effect of thermotherapy on survival PVY and PVS elimaination from meristem derived potato plantlets.
Mechanism of valve dysfunction of PVs leading to CVI and hemodynamic role of PV has not yet been completely elucidated [13, 18, 19].
In conclusion, genetic and clinical studies have strongly suggested the link between NS and PVS. A study should be carried out to highlight the link between NS and PVS.
Mapping and ablation were performed in 789 PVs (198 patients): 198 right superior PVs (RSPVs), 198 right inferior PVs (RIPVs), 5 right middle PVs (RMPVs), 190 left superior PVs (LSPVs), 190 left inferior PVs (LIPVs), and 8 left common trunks.
In this study, PVS severity grading was determined by the systolic pressure gradient across the PV (measured by catheterization), which has some differences from echocardiography.[5] According to hemodynamic assessments, PVS severity was considered mild when the pressure gradient was <40 mmHg, moderate when ranging from 40 to 60 mmHg, and severe when >60 mmHg.[7] Morphological assessments including the size of the pulmonary annulus and orifice were recorded.
In the remaining part of this paper, we shall define similar conditions and consider relations between these conditions and the regularity of PVs.
(8) The goal of the PVS is to provide urethral compression during times of increased intra-abdominal pressure, while not obstructing the urethra during voluntary bladder-emptying.
Given the complexity of presentation and the possibility of multiple comorbid conditions, the diagnosis of PVS can be challenging for the medical team.
In the early 20th century PVS seemed to be common in Caucasians of Northern countries, particularly among middle-aged women, with the mean age at presentation being 47 years (range 28-80 years) [4].
What additionally complicates the picture is that not all PVs are created equal as far as topology is concerned.
Tarlac City - The City Agriculture Office, here, conducted preferential analysis for 18 newly released rice varieties in line with its research activity called Participatory Varietal Selection (PVS) dubbed as "Accelerating the Development of Next-Generation (Next-Gen) Rice varieties for the Major Ecosystems in the Philippines."
[2] A recent article commenting on the Munoz case, [3] begs the question of whether if the pregnant woman had been in a persistent vegetative state (PVS) the courts in South Africa would have reached the same conclusion on the basis that she had expressed her wish not to be kept alive in an advance directive, and that keeping her alive against her wishes would have been a violation of her constitutional rights to equality, dignity, privacy and bodily integrity.

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