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the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson


the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

Collins Dictionary of Economics, 4th ed. © C. Pass, B. Lowes, L. Davies 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Per testare differenze significative fra i gruppi GE e GN per presenza di eventuali disfunzioni perineali, partecipazione al CAN, conoscenza ed esecuzione del PFMT sono stati effettuati i test non parametrici Pearson's Chi Quadro Squared, con intervallo di confidenza del 95% (p-value < di 0,05).
Se si considera l'atteso pari al 35%, i dati dell'indagine assumono significativita statistica, in quanto sono poche le donne che effettuano il PFMT a scopo preventivo.
Three studies found that PFMT improved symptom severity and manometric measures.
Although the majority of studies showed no difference between treatment methods, B0 et al16 assessed 107 females with SUI over 6 months and reported greater improvements with PFMT when compared to ES and vaginal cones and stated that PFMT exercises are effective and safe and should be offered as the first choice of treatment for SUI.
Despite numerous studies published about the methods of decreasing SUI, few of them have assessed the benefits of specific exercises involved in PFMT. The purpose of this study is to measure the effects of a traditional PFMT program (PFMT), involving only PFM contractions, and to compare it to an assisted pelvic floor muscle training (APFMT) program, which includes contraction of the hip musculature in conjunction with the PFM contraction.
Both unsupervised and supervised PFMT produced similar results.
concluded that increased intensity of PFMT demonstrated better outcomes
As a conservative and preventive management of PPI, PFMT is recommended for the initial treatment for PPUI.[sup.9] PMFT can be either self-administered or assisted by a physical therapist.
This study showed that after six months of PFMT, 40% had a return of normal function, and 34.5% had improved function.
In women with SUI, conservative treatment using PFMT has been shown to work well in the short term and produce objective and subjective cure rates of between 35% and 80% (Bo, 2012; Christofi & Hextall, 2007; Karon, 2009).
Contact and interaction with a pelvic floor specialist can be an important component of BF-assisted PFMT. A 2011 Cochrane review noted that BF may add benefit to PFMT, but the observed effect could well be related to another variable, such as the amount of clinician contact rather than the actual BF (Herderschee et al., 2011, 2013).
Non-surgical options include pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), local and systemic estrogens and pessary placement.