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the selection of part of a total population of consumers or products whose behaviour or performance can be analysed, in order to make inferences about the behaviour or performance of the total population, without the difficulty and expense of undertaking a complete census of the whole population.

Samples may be chosen randomly, with every consumer or product in the population having an equal chance of being included. Random samples are most commonly used by firms in QUALITY CONTROL where they are used as a basis for selecting products, components or materials for quality testing.

Alternatively, samples may be chosen by dividing up the total population into a number of distinct sub-groups or strata, then selecting a proportionate number of consumers or products from each sub-group since this is quicker and cheaper than random sampling. In MARKETING RESEARCH and opinion polling, quota sampling is usually employed where interviewers select the particular consumers to be interviewed, choosing the numbers of these consumers in proportion to their occurrence in the total population.

Samples may be:

  1. cross-sectional, where sample observations are collected at a particular point in time, for example data on company sales and the incomes of consumers in the current year, embracing a wide range of different income groups, as a basis for investigating the relationship between sales and income;
  2. longitudinal, where sample observations are collected over a number of time periods, for example data on changes in company sales over a number of years and changes in consumer incomes over the same time periods, as a basis for investigating the relationship between sales and income. See STATISTICAL INFERENCES, QUESTIONNAIRE.
Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
The Global Automotive Powertrain Control Module (PCM) market has been divided into, application, type and region.
The PCM is composed of faith-based members who are urging Filipinos to choose candidates based on principles rather than popularity and name recall, he said.
The low ice shear strengths of RTV, FS and RTV/PCM coatings were mainly attributed to the low [T.sub.g] of PDMS [9], which remains flexible at low temperature and makes RTV/PCM coating more "soft." Conversely, the ice shear strengths of the composite coatings increased with the increasing amount of PCM due to the mechanical interlocking between ice and the coating surface.
Last night, PCM vice president Datuk Huan Cheng Guan announced that the party will go up against Lim in both his state and parliamentary seats this general election.
To analyze and estimate the impact of the model with PCM and active ceilings, a similar model (referred to as Vent.
Phase 2: fabrication of the PCM cool roof system by inserting packing-type PCM into a wood plastic composite (WPC)
In this paper, in order to further explore the heat transfer law and thermal performance of the double PCM layer wallboard put forward by Zhu et al.
PCM, Inc., through its wholly-owned subsidiaries, is a leading multi-vendor provider of technology solutions, including hardware, software and services to small, medium and enterprise businesses, state, local and federal governments and educational institutions across the United States and Canada.
Study design, settings and duration: Retrospective hospital case record analysis of admitted children diagnosed as suffers of PCM and were admitted in hospitals from 2011-15 was done.
Mellons: PS700 pcm This property is a two-bedroom house, located in the St Mellons area of Cardiff.