While this paper is admittedly produced by a company comparing one of its own crystal oscillators
to comparable MEMS devices, the results are worthy of consideration.
Razavi, "A study of phase noise in CMOS oscillators
", IEEE J.
have become essential to digital equipment by providing the precisely timed reference signal that controls an electronic circuit.
It should be mentioned that within the selected temperature interval, the existing industrial oscillators
may have frequency stability of 5-7 ppm.
These phase-locked oscillator
models are RoHS compliant and operate over the full temperature range of -30 degrees Celsius to +70 degrees Celsius.
Figure 11 shows the vibration time history curves and phase diagrams of the shells in five periods, and Figure 12 shows the oscillators
in five periods.
The next step would be building a larger network of oscillators
that could handle graph coloring problems with more objects at play.
The fixed points (9) and (10) are similar in form to fixed points of the individual uncoupled oscillators
(8), except the fact that the fixed points (9) and (10) are single points, whereas (8) yields N points in the phase space.
. Figure 6 shows the EVM performances of 8x4 and 4x8 beamforming MIMO-OFDM with independent oscillators
in the frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channel.
In the last decade, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) oscillators
began replacing quartz oscillators
in many applications, including high-reliability automotive applications .
According to IDT, the low-jitter and high-reliability specifications of IDT's MEMS oscillators
met Samsung's stringent programme requirements to win the high-volume consumer socket.