** Using an oscillator
with fast startup allows shorter wake-up cycles and longer battery life compared to MEMS devices.
In general, there are various methods available to reduce the output noise of a ring oscillator
. Some of these methods are intended to lower the effect of a specific noise source while others improve the overall noise characteristics of the circuits.
Kyocera developed the Z-Series clock oscillators
to meet these demands while providing unprecedented flexibility in a standardized, quick-fulfillment solution.
Among the oscillators
presented in Table I , the Microcomputer Compensated Crystal Oscillator
(MCXO) seems to be the one that best fits with the frequency stability requirements, and also with the very low consumption demand.
where a is the periodic unit size, qaj is the j periodic phase factor, and [A.sub.1.sup.(0)][A.sub.2.sup.(0)] are the steady-state amplitude of shell and oscillator
The authors are also grateful to Professor Michael Rosenblum for drawing their attention to the fact that, in paper , along with the suppression of synchrony in an ensemble of interacting units, stabilization of an active oscillator
by means of a passive oscillator
, included in the feedback loop, is also described.
For an ideal oscillator
, [G.sub.T] ([G.sub.R]) boils down to the identity matrix [I.sub.N].
The frequency of the noise spur induced by the EMI occurs at offset frequencies that are aliases of the oscillator
From these system of equations, one can obtain approximate frequency-amplitude relationship of a nonlinear oscillator
up to higher order.
In order to verify the theoretical analysis, the proposed oscillator
has been simulated using HSPICE program by using TSMC 0.18 [micro]m CMOS process technology process parameters.
where [[psi].sub.j] is the phase of the oscillator
number j; [[OMEGA].sub.1] and [[OMEGA].sub.2] are characteristic frequencies of excitatory and inhibitory neural oscillators
population, respectively; [S.sub.1] ([[psi].sub.j]) and S2([[psi].sub.j]) are the external stimulations on excitatory and inhibitory neural oscillators
, respectively; [M.sub.11]([[psi].sub.j] - [[psi].sub.k]) is the mutual coupling interactions between excitatory coupling oscillators
; and inhibitory coupling oscillators
[M.sub.12]([[psi].sub.j] - [[psi].sub.k]), [M.sub.22]([[psi].sub.j] [[psi].sub.k]), [M.sub.21] ([[psi].sub.j] - [[psi].sub.k]) [F.sub.j](t) are Gaussian white noise, able to meet the following second-order condition: