What the leaked data has shown is that the open unemployment
rate that has never crossed 2.6 per cent between 1977-1978 and 2011-12 has now jumped to 6.1 per cent in 2017-18.
The following Table 6 displays the open unemployment
level based on the February and August surveys.
In this study, the nonparametric truncated spline regression model influenced by spatial heterogeneity was applied to Open Unemployment
Rate (OUR) data in province of Java, Indonesia, and some predictor variables that were suspected to affect it, i.e., population density ([X.sub.1]), percentage of the poor ([X.sub.2]), percentage of population with low education ([X.sub.3]), percentage of population working in agriculture sector ([X.sub.4]), area of agricultural land ([X.sub.5]), economic growth rate ([X.sub.6]), regional minimum wage ([X.sub.7]), and ratio number of large industries being number of labor force ([X.sub.8]).
This definition includes people who do not have any form of income and are looking for employment (open unemployment
), but also those working in the informal market who seek formalized insertion in the job market (unemployment hidden by precarious work).
The ILO estimates that if open unemployment
and discourA[logical not]aged workers are taken together, the composite unemployment rate at the end of 2011 would be close to 19%.
The contribution of services sector in terms of generating employment has been very limited with the result that open unemployment
rates in many countries show a significant increase.
Lindgren and Westerlund (2003) estimate that program participants who receive employment training are less likely to migrate than individuals who remain in open unemployment
, which is defined as jobless but not participating in labor market programs.
At that time, it was perceived as a socially acceptable policy facilitating smooth economic restructuring (Hemerijck/Eichhorst 2010; Palier 2010) in conjunction with a rejuvenation of the labor force and continually low open unemployment
. This came, however, at the price of rising non-wage labor costs in those social insurance systems which heavily relied on this policy instrument.
It said the employment has also surpassed pre-crisis levels but open unemployment
still remained high (11.3% in October 2010) and represented a challenge both to social welfare and productivity.
As applications of this model, the book discusses a number of extensions in the presence of open unemployment
(Chapter 4) and subsequently brings in the effect of foreign capital inflow on the informal sector (Chapter 5).
At the 43rd session of the Standing Labour Committee on October 30, labour minister Mallikarjuna Kharge said, " there is an open unemployment
of 10.8 million as per estimates available for the year 2004- 05 and the country also faces the problem of working poor." Apart from the fact that even the minister was quoting four year- old data, the other significant fact to note here is the admission that apart from open unemployment
, disguised unemployment -- or " working poor" as he terms it -- continues to be a major issue.