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the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson


the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

Collins Dictionary of Economics, 4th ed. © C. Pass, B. Lowes, L. Davies 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Short-term on-the-job training is typically required for competency in all of these occupations, except for parts salespersons, an occupation that usually needs moderate-term on-the-job training.
On-the-job Training: Short-term on-the-job training
On-The-Job Training PreferencesWhen asked about their expectations for on-the-job training, 82.1 per cent of respondents said that they expect their employer to have a succession or promotion plan in place for them before starting a new job.
Hence, the study assesses whether the on-the-job training programs of the College of Arts and Sciences in Liceo de Cagayan University comply with the criteria set by the government on internship and the competencies applied during on-the-job training.
His on-the-job training lasted six to nine months and included specific goals and benchmarks, as well as
The latest of such programmes witnessed the graduation of a group of employees who completed 12 training modules over a six-week course, followed by four weeks of on-the-job training, a process that enables them to get real-time experience and make them part of the bigger team.
The MoU also sees Gulf Air and Tamkeen join forces to provide a tailored comprehensive programme of intensive on-the-job training for Bahraini nationals who wish to pursue careers as aircraft technicians and engineers.
"We've been working very hard to put all the pieces together for our newly developed On-The-Job Training and Coaching workshop.
On the YES Programme, you will achieve a Certificate in Preparation for Employment in the Engineering Manufacturing Industry, a Certificate of Vocational Competence from the NAC Group and formal qualifications in English and Maths to NVQ Level 2 (GCSE equivalent) The benefits you will gain are 11 weeks off-the-job training at the YES Skills Academy, eight weeks on-the-job training at Nissan, continuous college exposure on day release during the 19 weeks, valuable workplace experience for your CV, a guaranteed interview with Nissan after you've successfully completed your traineeship and access to Nissan's Sports and Social Club gym.
According to yE[currency]KUR, applicants must at minimum be high school graduates, and workplaces must have at least five employees to take part in on-the-job training programs.
It found that while 95% of micro, small and medium-tolarge firms did some on-the-job training, only 35% had taken on any apprentices.
Muscat Oman's Ministry of Manpower plans to recruit 5,000 young Omanis for on-the-job training leading to guaranteed employment.