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However, the anamnesis and symptoms of OSAS were questioned in order to select the control group.
The choice of method of screening depends on its capabilities to accomplish certain objectives for inclusion of OSA patients for proper sleep-testing, identify patients with severe condition and exclude patients without disease or those whose evaluation for treatment is less urgent.
In this study, demographic variables such as age, gender, comorbid conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, coronary heart disease, chronic respiratory disease, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, and severity of OSAS were evaluated for their possible association with the frequency of nocturia.
RQ2a) How many different OSAs do people report experiencing recently and in their lifetime overall and for each subtype?
In addition, episodes of hypoxemia in OSA may be correlated with increased inflammatory mediators [11].
In recent years, several echocardiographic studies have reported that OSA patients frequently present structural and functional alterations of the right ventricle [16-21, 23, 24, 26, 29, 31-36, 38].
SDB is further classified into three basic categories: central sleep apnea (CSA) syndromes, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndromes, and sleep-related hypoventilation/hypoxic syndromes.
A limited number of studies have examined craniofacial shape of subjects with OSAS using 3-D imaging with geometric morphometric methods (Banabilh et al., 2009, 2010).
A diagnosis of OSA is important in order to prevent complications of the condition, including failure to thrive, neurocognitive deficits, hyperactivity and cardiovascular sequelae such as pulmonary hypertension.
Clinical presentation of OSA includes intermittent and periodic reduction in respiratory airflow, which is caused due to occlusion of the upper airway during sleep.4 Excessive daytime sleepiness, loud snoring, observed breathing interruptions or gasping and choking leading to awakenings amounting to at least 5 obstructive respiratory episodes per hour during a sleep cycle are some of the reported primary symptoms.
AHI was defined as the sum of the number of apneas and hypopneas per hour of sleep time, and the severity of OSA was defined using the following AHI cutoffs: simple snoring, AHI <5; mild OSA, 5[less than or equal to] AHI <15; moderate OSA, 15[less than or equal to] AHI <30; and severe OSA, AHI [less than or equal to]30.