Yager's entropy, which is used to optimize the proportion of portfolio capital allocation, effectively characterizes the uncertainty of probability distribution and provide an effective tool to depict the nonsystematic risk
of assets [26,32].
Of the 37 IPSs reviewed, only four plans mentioned uncompensated risk, nonsystematic risk
, or diversifiable risk.
GSAs with a single cohort can only pool nonsystematic risk
. Introducing other cohorts of the same initial age makes it practical to pool systematic risk across cohorts.
In other words, the objective of the study is to investigate the relationship between nonsystematic risk
and smoothed profits (high-quality and low-quality).
The return on an individual housing transaction is positively associated with national returns, but the association is not strong, which indicates a high level of nonsystematic risk
in housing transactions.
This does not require that the nonsystematic risk
be identical for all companies.
If a market is incomplete and thus investors cannot form a market portfolio to diversify the nonsystematic risk
away, firm-specific and industry-level risk may have the influence over return premium and affect asset prices, making the classical capital asset pricing model (CAPM) unable to explain the returns as perfectly as the theory says.
(14) To investigate this explanation, we compare systematic risk (Beta) and nonsystematic risk
(IdioRisk) for the demutualized insurers and the regular insurance IPO insurers.
At one level, general and specific market risk are analogous to systematic and nonsystematic risk
in a standard asset-pricing framework.