Among the estimated 58.0 million nonsmokers
who were exposed to secondhand smoke during 2013-2014, approximately 36.7 million were adults, 9.1 million were adolescents, and 14.0 million were children.
The current research attempted to conduct a more detailed study of attitudes toward smokers using the IRAP with both adult and adolescent smokers and nonsmokers
. Study 1 used the IRAP and self-report measures to investigate social attitudes toward smokers and nonsmokers
Editor's Note: "Additional large, well-conducted studies are needed to clarify whether metformin may be used to prevent lung or other cancers, particularly in specific subpopulations, such as nonsmokers
," said Sakoda.
During a median study period of about 4 years, rates of death from all causes were 7.9 per 1000 person-years among smokers and 4.2 per 1000 person-years among nonsmokers
. (A rate of 7.9 per 1000 person-years means about 8 of every 1000 people died every year.) Statistical analysis comparing smokers with nonsmokers
determined that smokers had a twice higher death rate (mortality rate ratio 1.94) (Figure 1).
This means that socioeconomic status alone does not account for the differences in emotional health between smokers and nonsmokers
; rather there is something else about being a smoker that relates to having worse emotional health.
Studies have shown an association between cigarette smoking and an increased rate of Type 2 diabetes despite the fact that most smokers are leaner than nonsmokers
and obesity is a risk factor for Type 2 diabetes.
The researchers found that those who smoked one to two packs a day had a 44% higher risk of dementia later in life compared with nonsmokers
, and those who smoked a half pack to one pack daily had a 37% higher risk.
Punjabi and his colleagues compared the sleep architecture of smokers with that of a matched group of nonsmokers
, all of whom underwent home polysomnography.
And for those smug nonsmokers
clinging to fantasies of a life eternal, I close by quoting Bill Hicks: "Are you ready?
Cigarette smoke contains thousands of dangerous chemicals that are unhealthy for both smokers and nonsmokers
. Secondhand smoke refers to the smoke from the burning end of a cigarette and the smoke exhaled by smokers.
Research conducted in academic settings has indicated that both high school and college students, and high school and college faculty members (including smokers and nonsmokers
alike), hold a more negative view of smokers than nonsmokers
(Brosh, et al., 2003; Outten, et al., 2003).