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Despite the growth in IRAP studies, as far as we are aware, only one published preliminary study has used the IRAP to assess attitudes toward smokers and nonsmokers (Vahey, Boles, & Barnes-Holmes, 2010).
Smokers had a median age of 40 years, compared with 38 years among nonsmokers. Men made up 81% of smokers and 57% of nonsmokers.
In Vermont, another state with an active rate regulation strategy, the young male nonsmoker could pay as little as $665 per year -- for a policy with a $100,000 annual deductible -- and as much as $3,505 per year, for a policy with a deductible of just $3,500.
The majority of the three student samples were nonsmokers; 18.6% of these high school students, 28% of these college students, and 17.6% of the professional school students surveyed engaged in smoking behavior classified as habitual and regular.
* You are hurting not only your own health, but the health of anyone who breathes the smoke, including nonsmokers.
Everett Koop made the following statements about the dangers of secondhand smoke to nonsmokers:
In the workplace, are smokers sick more than nonsmokers?
Thrifty Rent-A-Car reserves a percentage of cars for nonsmokers at major locations around the country.
Linus Pauling, for example, notes that his daily consumption, as a nonsmoker, is 10,000 milligrams.
Many studies now show that this secondhand smoke can have harmful effects on nonsmokers and even cause them to develop diseases such as lung cancer.
She also notes that some studies failed to compare women and men headto-head and instead examined differences in lung cancer rotes between smokers and nonsmokers within each gender.