Harmonization of Customs practices is, therefore, about a significant reduction of tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade
and movement of factors of production across national boundaries.
CETA is a so-called new generation free trade agreement, which means that, in addition to the classical provisions on the reduction of customs duties and of non-tariff barriers to trade
in goods and services, it contains rules relating to investment, public procurement, competition, intellectual property rights and sustainable development.
Australian grain exports face over 50 individual commercially significant non-tariff barriers to trade
in over 15 markets worldwide, with all major grain, oilseed and pulse crops affected.
They have reportedly put together memorandums of understanding on: agriculture, currency, forced technology transfer and cybertheft, intellectual-property rights and non-tariff barriers to trade
. Agreement in some areas (agriculture and currency) is relatively easy and a common understanding has been reached.
I cannot give a timeframe, but it will be within the next few days," he told The EastAfrican in Nairobi this past week.Mr Mfumukeko blamed the decline in intra-regional trade on political disputes, tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade
, non-conformity to certain measures and the slow pace of the review of the common external tariff.
Negotiators are drawing up six memorandums of understanding on structural issues: forced technology transfer and cyber theft, intellectual property rights, services, currency, agriculture and non-tariff barriers to trade
, according to two sources familiar with the progress of the talks.
Tariffs are relatively low; however, a number of non-tariff barriers to trade
persist and there are substantial restrictions on foreign ownership of businesses and real estate."
To be sure, it is difficult to measure the overall importance of non-tariff barriers to trade
, because they can take so many forms.
The US informed China that during this period it will work towards a broader trade agreement covering China's policies of forced technology transfer, weak intellectual property protection, high non-tariff barriers to trade
, and cyberattacks on US firms.
In a keynote speech, Xi vowed to increase imports, lower tariffs, reduce non-tariff barriers to trade
and protect foreign intellectual property.
The center-right leader said a tariff-free area among G7 allies would be an ideal outcome, but she made clear that any talks about such a trade bloc would have to include non-tariff barriers to trade
as well as free access to public tenders.
Restrictive visa requirements are non-tariff barriers to trade
, yet they are not normally addressed in trade discussions.