The Japanese banking crisis of the early 1990s was partly centred on the so-called non-bank banks, subsidiaries of major banks that avoided regulation.
(2011), 'The non-bank bank nexus and the shadow banking system', IMF Working Paper WP/11/289.
- Industrial loan companies and other non-bank banks
These so-called non-bank banks
are the investment banks, bank holding companies, and hedge funds.
Mergers and acquisitions will likely have reduced the number of banks and industry specialists and non-bank banks
will play a more prominent role.
These non-bank banks
borrowed funds from government development banks as well as from private commercial banks; in turn they gave loans to consumers to purchase homes and autos but were initially prohibited from accepting deposits or investing in securities or derivatives.
But they will face swarms of nimble competitors including community banks, industry specialists and non-bank banks
that specialize in providing specific services.
But some, like Central Pacific Bank's Yoshiharu Satoh, are confident that despite the additional players in the financial services game, Hawaii's banking industry will not be as severely impacted by non-bank banks
as institutions on the Mainland.