Assessing "neighborhood effects
": Social processes and new directions in research.
The ecological reality of the neighborhood effect
belies the core ideal of the American dream--the belief that, wherever we come from and whoever our parents are, we can succeed with hard work and determination.
Reflections about neighborhood effect
and youth social exclusion in European cities
And as has been extensively documented in the scholarly literature, in the US the quality of schools is largely determined by the very neighborhood effect
that Sampson makes so much of, wherein low-income communities of color are spatially and racially concentrated, thus radically affecting their life chances (see Duncan and Murname, 2011).
As argued by Lopez-Bazo (2002), Overman and Puga (2002) and Niebuhr (2003), these two effects can be characterized as the neighborhood effect
variable and the spillover effect variable, respectively.
TABLE 4 Neighborhood Data By Zip Code for New York City Variable Description Source %5YRS-ND (a) Neighborhood effect
Section 3 %2YRS-ND (a) Neighborhood effect
Section 3 %MASTERS-ND (a) Neighborhood effect
Section 3 ELEM SCHOOLS # of elementary schools NYC DOE Report Card Data VCRIMES Violent crimes per 10,000 NY Ofc.
A number of scholars have formally modeled this public school finance neighborhood effect
and its connection to residential segregation.
For example, suppose that neighborhood effects
operate through adult role models.
Although a fairly large cross-disciplinary literature on neighborhood effects
has emerged over the last 15 years, the empirical findings are not robust to data issues, outcome measures, and estimation techniques.(1) The lack of consistent evidence could stem from a number of factors.
A number of neighborhood amenity variables control for other neighborhood effects
. They include the presence of a neighborhood playground (NPLGRD), a neighborhood tennis court (NTENNIS), a neighborhood pool (NPOOL), a neighborhood jogging trail (NJOG), a basketball court (NCOURT), a golf course (NGOLF), a clubhouse (NCLUBH), and a neighborhood greenbelt (GBELT).
"The Neighborhood Effects
of Foreclosure." Journal of Geographical Systems, 11(4), 2009, 317-22.