Ln(l -I- Prod) is the natural logarithm
of one plus Prod and is our innovation output measures.
In fact, the natural logarithm
of the electron-to-proton wavelength ratio is approximately 7.5 and consequently, F calibrated on the proton will be shifted by 7.5 logarithmic units relative to the F calibrated on the electron:
Scatterplots of the dependent variable LN_TBCOEF10 related to the independent variables LN_PEROOM, LN_ILLITER, and LN_INADSAN (the variables transformed to natural logarithm
now have the prefix "LN_") were then constructed.
Regression of the natural logarithm
of raw counts on time yielded a naive estimate of the intrinsic growth rate (r) of 0.084 (SE = 0.019), suggesting an average annual discrete growth rate ([lambda]) of ~1.09.
More specifically, [y.sub.t] = ([food.sup.*.sub.t] [gdp.sub.t] [[pi].sub.t] [i.sub.t] [e.sub.t])', where [food.sup.*.sub.dt is the natural logarithm
of the international food price index for a specific country, [gdp.sub.t] is the natural logarithm
of that country's gdp, Pt is the natural logarithm
of the country's headline inflation index, [i.sub.t] is an interest rate closely following the central bank's policy rate, and e t is the natural logarithm
of that country's nominal exchange rate measured as units of local currency per unit of US Dollars.
(5) When variables are expressed in natural logarithm
this was taken over the Tornqvist quantity index
Thus, our empirical specifications include the natural logarithm
of REER to capture the influence of relative prices.
It was found that only their respective natural logarithms
underwent a normal behavior (P>0.40).
In all cases, the basic idea is that the natural logarithms
of variances are modeled using a linear model to account for heterogeneity of the variances (on a logarithmic scale) in terms of covariates and factor levels.
Mathematical descriptions of certain biological transformations in soil are best described by using natural logarithms
. Most calculators have the capacity to compute natural logarithms
To document growth, the data were transformed to natural logarithms
To do so, we took the natural logarithms
of all the rates available to us and then regressed the natural logarithms
of the wages, fatality rates, and injury and illness rates against the year of observation.