t+3]

Natural logarithm of one plus total number of patents filed (and eventually granted) in year t + 3 LnCite[Pat.

Analytics ADEP Ratio of the firm's sales to the total Audit Analytics sales of all clients of its auditor Compustat LOGASSETS

Natural logarithm of total assets at Compustat firm's fiscal year-end VARIANCE Variance of returns of the firm over its CRSP fiscal year LOGCEOV

Natural logarithm of (1+ dollar change ExecuComp in CEO's stock and option portfolio for a 1% change in stock return volatility) (in millions).

Notably, the transformation of the original values of the variables in

natural logarithms increased the correlation coefficients with TBCOEF10, which was favorable for the development of the model.

Other earning assets = the

natural logarithm of the difference between the total earning assets and the total loans.

In order to study economies of scale with respect to size as measured by total revenue of a firm, translog cost function is estimated for total expenses, total distribution expenses, and total general administrative and selling expenses with respect to the

natural logarithm of total revenue with total assets as a control variable for 19 companies.

Regression of the

natural logarithm of raw counts on time yielded a naive estimate of the intrinsic growth rate (r) of 0.

This prediction gives one data point in the simulated distribution of (the

natural logarithm of) wages that would have been earned by the ith European hockey player ([X.

Five control variables are included in Equation (2), which includes the variables used to measure financial distress in Equation (1): the

natural logarithm of the capital-to-assets ratio, the ratio of net income to lagged assets, and an indicator for negative net income.

5) Both dependent variables are in

natural logarithm format.

The estimated coefficients are in

natural logarithm form and thus show elasticities of wheat area with respect to various explanatory variables.

Loglinear analysis is an extension of the two-way contingency table where the conditional relationship between two or more discrete, categorical variables is analyzed by taking the

natural logarithm of the cell frequencies within a contingency table.

The gross profit margin variable was not transformed into

natural logarithm as some observations were negative.