Since only 68 percent of veterans had any Medicare costs we used 2-stage modeling for testing the association of a dementia diagnosis with Medicare costs, first estimating a model for any cost, and then, among those with Medicare costs, the association with the natural logarithm
Recall that the baseline specification already includes the natural logarithm
of a country's GDP per capita, its GDP growth rate, and region fixed effects.
Analytics ADEP Ratio of the firm's sales to the total Audit Analytics sales of all clients of its auditor Compustat LOGASSETS Natural logarithm
of total assets at Compustat firm's fiscal year-end VARIANCE Variance of returns of the firm over its CRSP fiscal year LOGCEOV Natural logarithm
of (1+ dollar change ExecuComp in CEO's stock and option portfolio for a 1% change in stock return volatility) (in millions).
Notably, the transformation of the original values of the variables in natural logarithms
increased the correlation coefficients with TBCOEF10, which was favorable for the development of the model.
Ln (FERC)= Natural logarithm
of fertilizer consumption i.e.
Total securities = the natural logarithm
of the total securities
In order to study economies of scale with respect to size as measured by total revenue of a firm, translog cost function is estimated for total expenses, total distribution expenses, and total general administrative and selling expenses with respect to the natural logarithm
of total revenue with total assets as a control variable for 19 companies.
LAGR is natural logarithm
of share of agriculture in GDP,
Because the response variable in each case was the ratio of the natural logarithm
of raw counts in successive years, we used as independent variables the ratios of the natural logarithms
of the putative explanatory variables in those same 2 years.
Game outcomes (coded as previously described and hereafter called WIN) were regressed on the team's Gini ratio (GINI) and the natural logarithm
of average team salary (lnSALARY).
We measure size as the natural logarithm
of total admitted general account assets.
It is included in the regression (as a natural logarithm
) using insurance penetration and insurance density, each of them for the subsets of total, life and non-life insurance.