Natural Log


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Natural Log

In mathematics, the exponent to which one must raise the number e (a mathematical constant approximately equal to 2.718) to produce a given number. The natural log has a number of applications across mathematics, including in compound interest.
References in periodicals archive ?
According to Breitung unit root test, all panel series are nonstationary but only natural log of stock traded and natural log of migration are witnessed to be stationary at level but all the selected variables are stationary at first difference.
0% of variation accounted for) between the natural log of [EC.
Determinants of hospital earnings management Control Sign Hypothesis Proxy Variables Large hospitals are more likely be targeted for tax-status Hospital Size Negative scrutiny due to high patient revenues and government subsidies; Natural log therefore, managers of Total Assets are likely to use discretionary accruals to lower income (Morrisey, Wedig and Hassan 1996).
LFGPBR t-1 = Natural log of lagged farm gate price of basmati rice (Rs/40kg)
Now, taking the natural log of both sides of equation (10), (10) and differentiating with respect to t, we obtain
Means of maximum canopy height, natural log transformed shoot density, and percent areal cover in the Tuckerton Peninsula exhibited significant differences among segments (F(2,502)=17.
For every natural log increase in urinary o-desmethylangolensin (ODMA), there was a 7% decrease in the odds of wheeze.
We additionally employ as explanatory variables the first difference of the natural logs of trade openness and of external volatility.
LENT is a natural log of ENT, LPOV is a natural log of POV, LUEM is a natural log of UEM, LGDP is a natural log of GDP.
In this study, we compare and contrast a variety of ways for analyzing nonlinear data with endogeneity: 2SLS on costs and the natural log of costs, CF methods employing a variety of residual types and functions of residuals (including the 2SRI approach), and a fully structural model estimated using full information maximum simulated likelihood (FIMSL).
The latter included (a) prior conditions, including diabetes and angina, and medication use, including statins and current and past hormone therapy; (b) the previous variables plus traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including current smoking and the natural logs of systolic blood pressure (SBP), total and HDL cholesterol; and (c) the previous variables plus factors in the Reynolds Risk Score (RRS) (16), including the natural log of hsCRP, family history of premature MI, and Hb [A.