National Security Controls

National Security Controls

Restrictions on the export or re-export of goods from the United States. In general, the U.S. (like most countries) promotes its own exports, but national security controls may be implemented on certain goods whose export is deemed not to be in the interests of the U.S. Nuclear materials, for example, have some national security controls placed on them. The president has the authority to issue or rescind national security controls.
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But in the contemporary era defined by globalization and convergence in the civilian and military technological domains, this compartmentalization of the economic and security arenas is becoming increasingly difficult to maintain and justify, generating intensive debate about the future of national security controls on high-technology trade and investment (Committee on Science, Security, and Prosperity 2009).
Beyond "Fortress America": National Security Controls on Science and Technology in a GIobalized World.
According to one participant, Congress placed the Exon-Florio provision in the statutes under Title VII of the Defense Production Act to indicate that the provision should be interpreted "as dealing with the broad industrial base issues addressed by that statute, not the more narrow national security controls dealt with in export control measures." (7)
Beyond "fortress America"; national security controls on science and technology in a globalized world.
Violations involving national security controls may also result in civil penalties of up to $1,000,000 per offense and the denial of export privileges, in addition to criminal penalties of up to five years in prison.
Violations involving national security controls may also result in civil penalties of up to $1 million per offense and the denial of export privileges, plus criminal penalties of up to five years in prison.
The current export system is weakened by its distinction between foreign policy and national security controls, a distinction that has largely lost its meaning.
First National Security controls four banks with combined 1990 assets and deposits of $179.1 million and $156.6 million, respectively.
These efforts have tended to focus on increased surveillance and prosecution of suspected spies and on a strengthening of national security controls affecting the "export' of technologies believed to be militarily critical.
National security controls were to be used to restrict the export of goods and technology, including nuclear non-proliferation items, that would make a significant contribution to the military capability of any country that posed a threat to the national security of the United States.
Equivalent penalties under the EAA limit civil penalties to $10,000, or $100,000 for violations involving national security controls, and criminal violations to $250,000 and 10 years' imprisonment for individuals and $1 million or 5 times the value of exports for firms.
Previously, EUS were required only for items under national security controls.
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