matrix

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Fig. 58 Matrix. The matrix structure.

matrix

an ORGANIZATION structure in which individuals report to managers in more than one DEPARTMENT or function. The simple CHAIN OF COMMAND found in the classic BUREAUCRACY is replaced by (potentially) a multiplicity of reporting relationships. This type of structure may characterize part of the organization – for project team management for instance, where a project manager assumes authority over team members drawn from a number of departments – or it may extend to the entire organization. See Fig. 58.

There is no standard form of matrix. Managers may have equal formal authority over subordinates or alternatively one of these may have primary authority with the others, assuming authority on particular issues, as in the dotted-line relationship (see ORGANIZATION CHART). The benefits of matrix organization are said to be that it facilitates interdepartmental coordination during innovation, and, by weakening departmental boundaries, encourages greater flexibility and creativity. However, many organizations that have assumed this form have found that the absence of clarity in lines of authority and responsibility can lead to inertia and conflict. See FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE, PRODUCT-BASED STRUCTURE, CRITICAL FUNCTION STRUCTURE, CONCURRENT ENGINEERING.

References in periodicals archive ?
Studies on intralesional injection of triamcinolone acetonide [9,21-26] showed that this modality is particularly effective for improving nail matrix lesions and moderately effective for nail bed lesions [2].
PMC has been widely used and reported having high success rate in permanently destroying the nail matrix and cosmetically satisfactory with less postoperative pain15,16, but unpredictable extensive tissue damage, and associated excessive drainage, postoperative infections and prolonged healing as well as the hazard of systemic toxicity are main shortcomings of this procedure6,9,14.
Partial removal of nail matrix in the treatment of ingrowing toe nail.
Outbreak of nail matrix arrest following hand-foot-mouth disease [in Japanese].
We describe here the cauterization of the nail matrix with phenol after surgical resection of the tumor, a treatment that had good results.
There is usually a transverse laceration of the nail matrix, with the base of the nail itself extruding out from under the nail fold (Seymour, 1966).
A generous biopsy is mandatory to obtain satisfactory diagnostic material, and should include a portion of the proximal terminus of the nail matrix, the nail bed and the nail plate.
The surgeon also burns the nail matrix -- the skin below the nail where unwanted growth takes place to minimise recurrence.
Involvement of the nail matrix may lead to nail deformation or loss.