matrix

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Fig. 58 Matrix. The matrix structure.

matrix

an ORGANIZATION structure in which individuals report to managers in more than one DEPARTMENT or function. The simple CHAIN OF COMMAND found in the classic BUREAUCRACY is replaced by (potentially) a multiplicity of reporting relationships. This type of structure may characterize part of the organization – for project team management for instance, where a project manager assumes authority over team members drawn from a number of departments – or it may extend to the entire organization. See Fig. 58.

There is no standard form of matrix. Managers may have equal formal authority over subordinates or alternatively one of these may have primary authority with the others, assuming authority on particular issues, as in the dotted-line relationship (see ORGANIZATION CHART). The benefits of matrix organization are said to be that it facilitates interdepartmental coordination during innovation, and, by weakening departmental boundaries, encourages greater flexibility and creativity. However, many organizations that have assumed this form have found that the absence of clarity in lines of authority and responsibility can lead to inertia and conflict. See FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE, PRODUCT-BASED STRUCTURE, CRITICAL FUNCTION STRUCTURE, CONCURRENT ENGINEERING.

References in periodicals archive ?
This surgical procedure, much like a de-clawing of a cat, has a painful recovery and results in a malformation of any nail growth that follows (since the nail matrix has been surgically altered).
The posterior nail fold and the nail matrix were cauterized completely with an 88% phenol-immersed cotton-tipped applicator for five minutes.
The surgeon also burns the nail matrix -- the skin below the nail where unwanted growth takes place to minimise recurrence.
The nail plate is a fully keratinized structure made up of about 25 layers of tightly packed keratynocytes and produced by the germinative epithelium of the nail matrix.
Involvement of the nail matrix may lead to nail deformation or loss.
If the entire plate has been affected, the fungus has probably invaded the nail bed; this may have damaged the nail matrix, resulting in permanently dystrophic nails.
BEST TIP: Protect the nail matrix (the area that produces the nail) from sports shoe trauma by wearing shoes slightly large and keeping nails trimmed short.
The specialized delivery system penetrates to the nail matrix where new nail cell formation occurs, providing the opportunity to kill the germs that cause infection, according to the spokeswoman.
The nail matrix which is directly under your cuticle, is full of blood cells and growing nail material.
Until now, few medications reached two important locations in the nail--the nail matrix and the nail bed--in adequate concentrations for long enough duration to rid invading fungus," Aly says.
1] The treatment options available are conservative, nail avulsion, nail matrix surgery and non-nail matrix surgery.
Although resolution of the infection in patients who are treated early and effectively may result in a completely normal-appearing nail, individuals with long-standing infections or recurrent onychomycosis may have sustained permanent damage to the nail matrix or subungual tissue.