motivation

(redirected from Motivational processes)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia.
Related to Motivational processes: external motivation, internal motivation

motivation

the force or process which impels people to behave in the way that they do. In a work setting, motivation can be viewed as that which determines whether workers expend the degree of effort necessary to achieve required task objectives. In OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY two basic conceptions of motivation can be discerned: ‘needs’ theory and ‘expectancy’ theory Possibly the best known of the former is the ‘hierarchy of needs’ identified by Abraham Maslow (1908-70). He argued that individuals have intrinsic needs which they are impelled to seek to satisfy. These needs, which are ordered in a hierarchy are physical needs (food, warmth, shelter), security needs (safety, home), ego needs (esteem, status) and self-actualization needs (the realization of individual potential). Initially, the lower order needs such as safety determine behaviour but once these are satisfied higher order needs come to dominate. Maslow's theory has been widely criticized, however, for assuming that such needs are universal and that they are always ordered in this particular hierarchy.

Other needs theories include Herzberg's ‘Two Factor Theory of Motivation’. He argued that people are motivated by two kinds of need: hygiene factors (those basic needs such as shelter which, if not satisfied, lead to unhappiness but whose satisfaction does not in itself lead to happiness); and motivators (those higher order needs which when satisfied lead to contentment). The importance of this theory in a work setting is its insistence that managers have to ensure that both hygiene factors (i.e. pay, working conditions) and motivation (i.e. the need for personal fulfilment) are satisfied for a workforce to be content and highly motivated.

A further ‘needs’ theory is the ERG (Existence, Relatedness and Growth) theory of Clayton Alderfer (1940 -). Like Maslow he suggests that there is a hierarchy of needs but that the less a high level need is satisfied the more important a lower level need becomes. Hence demands for more pay in fact really reflect a desire for work to be made more satisfying.

The main alternative approach to ‘needs’ theories is the ‘expectancy’ approach associated with Victor Vroom (1932 -). This suggests that individuals are motivated to act in certain ways not by some basic inner need but by the strength of the expectation that the action will achieve a result seen by them as desirable. The desire for a particular outcome is known as the ‘valence’. This theory is essentially a ‘process’ theory: it emphasizes the process of motivation rather than the nature or content of particular motivators. The strength of people's motivation will be determined by weighing up how much they want something and how far they believe a certain action will contribute to achieving it.

References in periodicals archive ?
Therefore, the present results provide important insights into motivational processes across conventional PE classes without any specific intervention design.
These findings were suggested to support the opinion that non-emotional motivational processes (e.
In recent research on de-escalation the main focus has been on motivational processes (Molden & Hui, 2011; Sivanathan, Molden, Galinsky, & Ku, 2008), such as activating promotion-focused motivation.
Caption: Figure 1 Revised model of motivational processes in dance (Model A); *p < .
In addition to these, strategies for evaluating motivational processes like setting performance goals and outcomes, holding a positive attitude about one's capabilities, and evaluating learning, its outcomes, and positive experiences that can affect learning have a considerable role.
2003, Study 2) which showed that motivational models including both the top-down and the recursive influences on people's motivation provide an adequate representation of the dynamic motivational processes at work.
It is likely to be rewarding for academics to develop a theoretical understanding of more realistic and real-world motivational processes within the unemployed population.
Part 2 extends these findings by conducting a randomized field experiment with high school students, and then examining the motivational processes that account for the effects of the intervention.
Four current theoretical perspectives on motivational processes will be considered.
Hence our interest in the role of FTP in Argentinean adolescents' motivational processes.
valid motivational processes within a learner and their effects on