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the force or process which impels people to behave in the way that they do. In a work setting, motivation can be viewed as that which determines whether workers expend the degree of effort necessary to achieve required task objectives. In OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY two basic conceptions of motivation can be discerned: ‘needs’ theory and ‘expectancy’ theory Possibly the best known of the former is the ‘hierarchy of needs’ identified by Abraham Maslow (1908-70). He argued that individuals have intrinsic needs which they are impelled to seek to satisfy. These needs, which are ordered in a hierarchy are physical needs (food, warmth, shelter), security needs (safety, home), ego needs (esteem, status) and self-actualization needs (the realization of individual potential). Initially, the lower order needs such as safety determine behaviour but once these are satisfied higher order needs come to dominate. Maslow's theory has been widely criticized, however, for assuming that such needs are universal and that they are always ordered in this particular hierarchy.

Other needs theories include Herzberg's ‘Two Factor Theory of Motivation’. He argued that people are motivated by two kinds of need: hygiene factors (those basic needs such as shelter which, if not satisfied, lead to unhappiness but whose satisfaction does not in itself lead to happiness); and motivators (those higher order needs which when satisfied lead to contentment). The importance of this theory in a work setting is its insistence that managers have to ensure that both hygiene factors (i.e. pay, working conditions) and motivation (i.e. the need for personal fulfilment) are satisfied for a workforce to be content and highly motivated.

A further ‘needs’ theory is the ERG (Existence, Relatedness and Growth) theory of Clayton Alderfer (1940 -). Like Maslow he suggests that there is a hierarchy of needs but that the less a high level need is satisfied the more important a lower level need becomes. Hence demands for more pay in fact really reflect a desire for work to be made more satisfying.

The main alternative approach to ‘needs’ theories is the ‘expectancy’ approach associated with Victor Vroom (1932 -). This suggests that individuals are motivated to act in certain ways not by some basic inner need but by the strength of the expectation that the action will achieve a result seen by them as desirable. The desire for a particular outcome is known as the ‘valence’. This theory is essentially a ‘process’ theory: it emphasizes the process of motivation rather than the nature or content of particular motivators. The strength of people's motivation will be determined by weighing up how much they want something and how far they believe a certain action will contribute to achieving it.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
Using relevant examples from the data, each theme seeks to distinguish how participants experienced these motivational processes throughout the six-week broiler project, which provided a context for teaching record keeping and SAE concepts.
Therefore, the present results provide important insights into motivational processes across conventional PE classes without any specific intervention design.
In this present study we analyse the concept of workplace phobic anxiety using jointly the health impairment and the motivational processes of the JD-R model.
These findings were suggested to support the opinion that non-emotional motivational processes (e.g., habits, conditioning, positive expectations about alcohol use) are more effective on decision-making mechanism in alcohol-addicted patients with decreased IA and that decreased IA may increase the drinking behavior The findings of our study support the opinion of a possible disturbed IA in alcohol addicts and that decreased IA may be related to cravings that lead to relapse.
Lersch (7), who talk about a hierarchized motivational construct based on primary instincts, which are fundamental elements of life, that determine and support all the other motivational processes (the conservation instinct and the sexual instinct or specifically human motivations, such as selfishness, the desire for power, or social reasons of goodwill and love, etc.).
These theories have attracted criticism: they tend to arrange the factors of motivations in lists to be universal; they are poorly validated, in an empiric way, as the metodological steps are unsufficient; they, generally simplifying, offer more explanation for the satisfactioin than for the motivation, which they explain by satisfying the necessities, aims and values; the explanation for the motivational processes is not complete (M.Micle, 2007).
On many occasions, I hear technology managers discussing how they or their corporate leaders instituted motivational processes such as incentives, compensation plans, bonuses, recognition programs, and awards; I also hear about product development processes unique to each organization.
Achievement goals in classroom: students' learning strategies and motivational processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 208-223.
Bandura (1997) emphasizes the importance of individuals' motivational processes and he further states that individuals should shape their beliefs about their abilities, set negative and positive outcomes, and anticipate different pursuits and goals for themselves.
The present findings are in line with past research (Guay et al., 2003, Study 2) which showed that motivational models including both the top-down and the recursive influences on people's motivation provide an adequate representation of the dynamic motivational processes at work.
Subsequent essays cover research in animal and human operant conditioning, and heart rate and attentional and motivational processes. The volume is meant for advanced students, researchers, scholars, and teachers in psychophysiology, psychiatry, cardiology, and biomedical engineering.
It is likely to be rewarding for academics to develop a theoretical understanding of more realistic and real-world motivational processes within the unemployed population.