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the force or process which impels people to behave in the way that they do. In a work setting, motivation can be viewed as that which determines whether workers expend the degree of effort necessary to achieve required task objectives. In OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY two basic conceptions of motivation can be discerned: ‘needs’ theory and ‘expectancy’ theory Possibly the best known of the former is the ‘hierarchy of needs’ identified by Abraham Maslow (1908-70). He argued that individuals have intrinsic needs which they are impelled to seek to satisfy. These needs, which are ordered in a hierarchy are physical needs (food, warmth, shelter), security needs (safety, home), ego needs (esteem, status) and self-actualization needs (the realization of individual potential). Initially, the lower order needs such as safety determine behaviour but once these are satisfied higher order needs come to dominate. Maslow's theory has been widely criticized, however, for assuming that such needs are universal and that they are always ordered in this particular hierarchy.

Other needs theories include Herzberg's ‘Two Factor Theory of Motivation’. He argued that people are motivated by two kinds of need: hygiene factors (those basic needs such as shelter which, if not satisfied, lead to unhappiness but whose satisfaction does not in itself lead to happiness); and motivators (those higher order needs which when satisfied lead to contentment). The importance of this theory in a work setting is its insistence that managers have to ensure that both hygiene factors (i.e. pay, working conditions) and motivation (i.e. the need for personal fulfilment) are satisfied for a workforce to be content and highly motivated.

A further ‘needs’ theory is the ERG (Existence, Relatedness and Growth) theory of Clayton Alderfer (1940 -). Like Maslow he suggests that there is a hierarchy of needs but that the less a high level need is satisfied the more important a lower level need becomes. Hence demands for more pay in fact really reflect a desire for work to be made more satisfying.

The main alternative approach to ‘needs’ theories is the ‘expectancy’ approach associated with Victor Vroom (1932 -). This suggests that individuals are motivated to act in certain ways not by some basic inner need but by the strength of the expectation that the action will achieve a result seen by them as desirable. The desire for a particular outcome is known as the ‘valence’. This theory is essentially a ‘process’ theory: it emphasizes the process of motivation rather than the nature or content of particular motivators. The strength of people's motivation will be determined by weighing up how much they want something and how far they believe a certain action will contribute to achieving it.

References in periodicals archive ?
A subsequent study may benefit by including teachers and middle grades students, to investigate not only what the teachers' motivation theories may be, but also how students respond to teachers ' motivational tools in the classroom.
To provide a better picture, Table 1 compares and contrasts how well the three motivation theories achieve the goal of compliance in planning conditions.
Therefore, motivation theories suggest that growth motivation should have a positive effect on growth, but the effect could not be expected to be very large given that the behavior is under limited volitional control and that the task of expanding a business could be regarded as complex and fuzzy.
A thorough analysis of motivation theories shows that all of them contain--either explicitly or, more often, implicitly--a set of basic rules (hereinafter referred to as axioms; some of these axioms have been formulated earlier, some should be reformulated from implicit indications, some are given here for the first time--I will indicate it below for each axiom).
This paper explains the correspondence of the motivation theories with andragogy and proposes a process for validation.
In particular, Triandis in Industrial and Labour Relations Review recognized that "there is something intuitively correct about this theory" (5) that serves to explain workers such as the artist and medical intern in a way that traditional motivation theories do not.
There are a multitude of motivation theories and refinements to those theories, many definitions of motivation, and many constructs related to motivation.
Individual motivation theories are divided into two categories- content and process.
Avoidance, self-sabotage, and anxiety Strategies to deal with avoidance, anxiety, and self-sabotage are underpinned by need achievement and self-worth motivation theories.
Is it that these motivation theories and descriptions of the actions and behaviors of effective R&D leaders are out-of-date and are no longer a useful guide for managers?
Contemporary motivation theories such as goal theory are of particular interest, since they concentrate on the processes and constructs that mediate the relationship between more distal constructs commonly studied by public-sector scholars and subsequent behavior and performance of interest to organizations.
All motivation theories derive from one basic principle "People do what they are rewarded for doing".