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the force or process which impels people to behave in the way that they do. In a work setting, motivation can be viewed as that which determines whether workers expend the degree of effort necessary to achieve required task objectives. In OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY two basic conceptions of motivation can be discerned: ‘needs’ theory and ‘expectancy’ theory Possibly the best known of the former is the ‘hierarchy of needs’ identified by Abraham Maslow (1908-70). He argued that individuals have intrinsic needs which they are impelled to seek to satisfy. These needs, which are ordered in a hierarchy are physical needs (food, warmth, shelter), security needs (safety, home), ego needs (esteem, status) and self-actualization needs (the realization of individual potential). Initially, the lower order needs such as safety determine behaviour but once these are satisfied higher order needs come to dominate. Maslow's theory has been widely criticized, however, for assuming that such needs are universal and that they are always ordered in this particular hierarchy.

Other needs theories include Herzberg's ‘Two Factor Theory of Motivation’. He argued that people are motivated by two kinds of need: hygiene factors (those basic needs such as shelter which, if not satisfied, lead to unhappiness but whose satisfaction does not in itself lead to happiness); and motivators (those higher order needs which when satisfied lead to contentment). The importance of this theory in a work setting is its insistence that managers have to ensure that both hygiene factors (i.e. pay, working conditions) and motivation (i.e. the need for personal fulfilment) are satisfied for a workforce to be content and highly motivated.

A further ‘needs’ theory is the ERG (Existence, Relatedness and Growth) theory of Clayton Alderfer (1940 -). Like Maslow he suggests that there is a hierarchy of needs but that the less a high level need is satisfied the more important a lower level need becomes. Hence demands for more pay in fact really reflect a desire for work to be made more satisfying.

The main alternative approach to ‘needs’ theories is the ‘expectancy’ approach associated with Victor Vroom (1932 -). This suggests that individuals are motivated to act in certain ways not by some basic inner need but by the strength of the expectation that the action will achieve a result seen by them as desirable. The desire for a particular outcome is known as the ‘valence’. This theory is essentially a ‘process’ theory: it emphasizes the process of motivation rather than the nature or content of particular motivators. The strength of people's motivation will be determined by weighing up how much they want something and how far they believe a certain action will contribute to achieving it.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
Figure 1 Herzberg's Two-Factor Principles Job Dissatisfaction Influenced Job Satisfaction Influenced by Hygiene Factors by Motivation Factors 1.
Table 4 illustrates the correlations between personality traits, motivation factors, LMS use and course grades among the blended course participants.
Whereas in RWMF 'event attractions' emerged as the dominant motivation factor, accounted for 37.121% of the variance from total of 61.970% variance explained.
Figure 2 shows what participants chose as the motivation factor for pursuing a business opportunity.
Therefore, it is argued that relevant factors with regards to personality and motivation factors needs to be integrated to enhance our understanding on micro-entrepreneur research.
Motivation factors include challenging work, recognition, responsibility and personal growth.
The results of the LMA test indicated that there were significant mean differences in all motivation factors between the two contribution groups.
Hygiene factors focus on fair treatment; if employees feel well treated, they focus on motivation factors. In this study, salary/compensation and job security were job dissatisfiers.
Recent shifts in participant motivation factors have suggested a need to reexamine this complex element of sport participant psychology.
* Part 2 represents the reliability analysis and factor analysis for the adopted questionnaire of motivation factors for entrepreneurs in Egypt.
To summarize this theory, job satisfaction is based on two factors: hygiene factors and motivation factors. The hygiene factors are those which closely parallel the factors discussed by Incentive Theory such as salary, prestige, the size of one's office, etc.