They developed a spatial memory span
test, similar to the verbal span test, to measure the storage component of spatial working memory.
To investigate these possibilities, a 3 (Group: CA, RL, LD) x 2 (Memory Span
: STM, WM) x 2 (Modality: Visual, Verbal) ANCOVA with repeated measures on the last two factors was conducted on composite span scores.
Such a task resembles a memory span
task, except that there is no variation across trials in the number of words presented; instead the type of words are varied.
The first of these classes of tasks included measures of readers' working memory span
, speed of accessing word knowledge in memory, general speed of reading, and speed in making simple choices.
 George Miller argued that human short-term memory has a forward memory span
of approximately 7 items or more accurately within the information theoretic single digit or letter, while an item can indeed be a single digit or letter, it can also be a whole number, word or abstract concept.
This amount varies among individuals, and is typically assessed by complex working memory span
tasks, which require for the participant to read or listen to a number of sentences (sometimes also to perform a grammatical or semantic verification task), in order to remember the last word of each sentence (Daneman & Carpenter, 1980).
"Our finding therefore shows that perfect pitch is associated with an unusually large memory span
for speech sounds," said Deutsch, "which in turn could facilitate the development of associations between pitches and their spoken languages early in life."
Relationships between processing speed and memory span
have been established (Case, Kurland, & Goldberg, 1982; Hitch, Towse, & Hutton, 2001), as well as between processing speed and executive functions (Fry & Hale, 1996), until the possibility arose that a higher processing speed allows for a larger storage capacity, which would sharpen the phonological loop or visual-spatial store, and as a result, would improve the performance of the working memory.
In comparison with today's kit, it probably had the memory span
of a goldfish.
Therefore, the initial differences in working memory capacity and fluid intelligence can be ascribed to the initial differences in the length of memory span
between the groups.
Just a few months ago the Birmingham boss was being hailed a miracle worker - but the cheers had been replaced by jeers recently from those with a limited memory span