Our main goal was to provide the first description of 1) oogenesis, 2) type of fertilization, 3) gonadal differentiation and development, and 4) an estimation of fecundity in female smooth lumpsuckers and to define both macroscopic and microscopic maturity phases. Macroscopic staging is much quicker and less expensive than histological staging; however, microscopic analysis provides a more precise determination of phases and was used to evaluate the efficacy of macroscopic maturity scales.
To analyze gonadal development, photographs were taken of the different maturity phases and then examined under magnification (Fig.
An analysis of the results shows Company Alpha performing well in the evaluation of its PMM level, obtaining a score of 7 (out of 12) in the Embryonic, Executive Management Acceptance, Growth and Maturity phases
, with only 5 in the Management Acceptance phase.
In this investigation, five different maturity phases
(I-V) of gonads have been described based on the macroscopic study.
all oocyte stage in ovary occurring simultaneously for all maturity phases
, presence of hydrated oocytes and post ovulatory follicles, and continuous oocyte diameter distribution in actively spawning females) which indicate indirectly multiple batch spawning and indeterminate fecundity (Grande et al., 2013).
The difference can be explained by the difference in BPM maturity phases
in the countries, the Netherlands is more developed in business process management than Portugal is (Ruivo, et al, p.4).
The first transition is between introduction and maturity phases
and the second--between maturity and the product's end-of-life.
Low unit sales in the introduction and decline stages can be offset by higher sales during the growth and maturity phases
. This will facilitate scheduling as well as increase the stability and efficiency of operations.
In the peculiar case of species of Lophius, studies on fecundity are scarce because of the difficulty of 1) acquisition of suitably mature individuals in the maturity phases
of spawning capable or actively spawning and 2) the use of a proper method for fecundity estimation, which is especially complicated because of the morphological features of the gonads of these species.
Six maturity phases
were established for females as follow: I-immature, II-developing, III-spawning capable, IV-actively spawning, V-regressing, VI-recovering.
Although certain reproductive traits, such as maturity phases
, are universal among teleost fishes, the temporal patterns of these traits vary among species (Lowerre-Barbieri et al., 2011).
GSI values significantly varied among maturity phases
(ANOVA, [F.sub.4,205], F=124.1, P<0.0001) and became significantly higher in each successive stage of maturity (Fisher's PLSD test, P<0.05), except for the first two phases (P=0.687).