Just as The Matthew Effect
suggests, they may feel powerless about a current impoverished condition, yielding less future benefits than more connected and informed families of the same socioeconomic background.
The estimated values of the four waves in learning achievement were used as the observation indicators for the initial status (intercept) and growth rate (slope), in order to delineate the learning growth trajectory for adolescent students in their academic history and evaluate whether changes in learning achievement showed the Matthew effect
in young readers: Reading comprehension and reading experience aid vocabulary development.
This process would become cyclical resulting in a variation of the Matthew effect
Which groups of children are likely to experience the hypothesized Matthew effect
Aptitude by treatment interactions and Matthew effects
in graduate-level cooperative learning groups.
The findings from Penno et al.'s (2002) study, along with other past research (e.g., Ewers & Brownson, 1999; Reese & Cox, 1999), demonstrate the Matthew Effect
. However, some research shows an absence of a Matthew Effect
382) Above and beyond the properties of a multiplier effect described above, a central aspect of the Matthew Effect
models is that the gain achieved by the initially advantaged is disproportionate to that of the initially disadvantaged.
This phenomenon, often referred to as the "Matthew effect
," increases the gap between good readers and poor readers on various components of reading (Cain & Oakhill, 2011; Pfost, Dorfler, & Artelt, 2012).
The analysis found support for the Matthew Effect
which discusses skewed distributions, i.e., the majority of articles emphasized a narrow range of contemporary topics.
This clearly is a form of the Matthew effect
(Merton, 1968): Already famous persons (or journals) receive more credit than they actually deserve, while recognition of less prestigious scientists (or journals) is withheld.
This finding is consistent with what Stanovich (1986) refers to as the "Matthew Effect
"--the rich are getting richer while the poor are getting poorer.