matrix

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Fig. 58 Matrix. The matrix structure.

matrix

an ORGANIZATION structure in which individuals report to managers in more than one DEPARTMENT or function. The simple CHAIN OF COMMAND found in the classic BUREAUCRACY is replaced by (potentially) a multiplicity of reporting relationships. This type of structure may characterize part of the organization – for project team management for instance, where a project manager assumes authority over team members drawn from a number of departments – or it may extend to the entire organization. See Fig. 58.

There is no standard form of matrix. Managers may have equal formal authority over subordinates or alternatively one of these may have primary authority with the others, assuming authority on particular issues, as in the dotted-line relationship (see ORGANIZATION CHART). The benefits of matrix organization are said to be that it facilitates interdepartmental coordination during innovation, and, by weakening departmental boundaries, encourages greater flexibility and creativity. However, many organizations that have assumed this form have found that the absence of clarity in lines of authority and responsibility can lead to inertia and conflict. See FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE, PRODUCT-BASED STRUCTURE, CRITICAL FUNCTION STRUCTURE, CONCURRENT ENGINEERING.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
He says: "I think it will give people a lot of insight into how to produce better algorithms for constructing Sudoku matricies and it will enable ultimately the very fast learning algorithms that solve Sudoku matrices."
Email: KAL143@alumni.psu.edu Table 1 Pairwise correlation matricies for experienced and naive Impatiens capensis grown with Alliaria petiolata.
In both soils the model overestimated the experimental data and such discrepancies no doubt arise from the physical heterogeneity of the soil matricies. The experiments were run under constant head with a pore flow velocity of approximately 0.05cm/s.