Perhaps Du Bois hoped his criticisms in Souls would drive a wedge between some of the supporters of Washington by arguing that the genteel beliefs of the white planters were under attack by "mammonism
." Maybe some white readers could be persuaded that black workers and farmers could aid in the protection of the interests of the sons and daughters of former masters.
In a reference to the factories of 'Sooty Manchester', Carlyle assured the worker that God was within, despite the working conditions: 'Brother, thou art a Man, I think; thou art not a mere building Beaver, or two-legged Cotton-Spider; thou hast verily a Soul in thee, asphyxied or otherwise!' Labour, owned by and unassailable as the property of human beings, possessed a nobility and verve which was intrinsic: 'Labour is not a devil, even while encased in Mammonism
; Labour is ever an imprisoned god, writhing unconsciously or consciously to escape out of Mammonism
!' (Carlyle  1949, 199, 220).
Absorbed by the romantic notion of organic culture, he was contemptuous of what he regarded as an irredeemable Jewish mammonism
. Upon Lionel Rothschild's election to Parliament in 1847, Carlyle asked:
"Children of Light," for example, avers that the pilgrims planted "Serpent's seeds of light" when they "fenced their gardens with the Redman's bones." "Concord" mocks the mammonism
and ignorance of modern Americans: "Ten thousand Fords are idle here in search/Of a tradition." The most powerful text may be a long, phantasmagorical elegy called "The Quaker Graveyard in Nantucket." Built of puns, figures, symbols, allusions, colloquialisms, and unforgettable images, this poem yearns for Christian transcendence even as it remains transfixed by war and greed.
Luther condemns the idolatry of "mammonism
" and qualifies the practice of excessive interest (usury) as robbery and sin.
In this position, Jews are attacked from all sides: by the conservatives, by Christians who view the Jews as those who defiled Jesus's blood or who bring sacrifices to Moloch, and at the same time by the radical avant-garde, which promised the liberation of humankind from Mammonism
, the rule of money, in an anti-Christian, anti-capitalist, anti-bourgeois way.