Absorbed by the romantic notion of organic culture, he was contemptuous of what he regarded as an irredeemable Jewish mammonism
Concord" mocks the mammonism
and ignorance of modern Americans: "Ten thousand Fords are idle here in search/Of a tradition.
In this position, Jews are attacked from all sides: by the conservatives, by Christians who view the Jews as those who defiled Jesus's blood or who bring sacrifices to Moloch, and at the same time by the radical avant-garde, which promised the liberation of humankind from Mammonism
, the rule of money, in an anti-Christian, anti-capitalist, anti-bourgeois way.
While a wholly critical position was taken by such thinkers as Ruskin, Carlyle, and Newman who saw Mammonism
as the greatest enemy to moral life, Victorian novelists, I suggest, sought a way to integrate the inevitably commercial element of their enterprise with the predominant novelistic credo of expanding human sympathy.