Thirty-seven patients had lymphatic metastasis, and 63 patients had no lymphatic metastasis; 20 patients had lymphatic vessel
invasion and 80 patients had no lymphatic vessel
On computed tomography (CT) studies, the engorged lymphatic vessels
give rise to perivenous linear hypoattenuation, which might be reminiscent of conventional periportal halo (Fig.
The following groups were characterized: (1) control (4 cases): symptomless individuals from which living AWs nonsensitive to antifilarial treatment were removed [17-20]; (2) patients with dead AWs in the PL (1 case); (3) acute filarial hydrocele (3 cases): patients with fluid accumulation in the tunica vaginalis cavity which appears within a few days after a nodule formation and resolves spontaneously up to 18 months ; (4) filaricele (20 cases): patients with chronic accumulation in the tunica vaginalis cavity of fluid composed of a combination, in different proportion, of transudate and nonmilky lymph from ruptured dilated lymphatic vessels
Histologically, lymphangiomas are characterized by dilated lymphatic vessels
present in the papillary dermis, positivity of the lymphatic channels to the lymphatic endothelial marker D2-40, atrophy of the overlying epidermis, and elongation of the rete ridges [3, 9].
Tagge and Baron reported the etiology of lymphatic cysts may be attributed to ectasia of the lymphatic vessels
or to cystic degeneration of a hamartoma .
and Seung-Kwon Ha, Ph.D., along with researchers from the National Cancer Institute, the team discovered lymphatic vessels
in the dura, the leathery outer coating of the brain.
Radiation therapy to the abdomen causes fibrosis and obstruction of the lymphatic vessels
in the small bowel and mesentery (7).
The lymphatic vasculature is organized into a network of lymphatic vessels
that collect extra tissue fluid from the interstitial space and drain it back to the venous circulation.
The trafficking of lymphocytes and DCs into the lymphatic vessels
is an active process.
Lymphangioma is a benign hamartomatous tumour that occurs because of congenital malformation of the lymphatic system and is characterized by benign proliferation of lymphatic vessels
. It is also known as lymphatic hamartoma (1).
To visualize course and occurrence of lymphatic vessels
and lymph nodes, lymphoscintigraphy is used as a gold standard to visualize lymphatic function.
Noncancer cells in the TME, such as blood vessels, lymphatic vessels
, and inflammatory cells, also release bioactive molecules that influence cancer progression.