An updated overview of clinical guidelines for the management of non-specific low back pain
in primary care.
Because of the high prevalence of low back pain
and the accessibility of pharmacists, patients frequently seek the advice of their local pharmacist on appropriate treatment.
In our literature review, no study has investigated the combination of neck, shoulder and upper back exercises in patients with chronic low back pain
and the impact of this treatment on pain and disability to date.
Acupuncture has been found to reduce low back pain
. (15,16) Moreover, acupuncture has been found to be effective in migraine prophylaxis.
Functional capacity and its associated factors in the elderly with low back pain
. Acta Ortop Bras 2014; 22: 295-9.
(26) The scale was developed by Main as a clinical screening instrument to measure somatic and autonomic perception in patients with low back pain
and other chronic pain problems.
Physicians have prescribed the SPRINT system to treat post-amputation pain, end-stage knee and shoulder joint pain, chronic low back pain
, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), and post-operative pain following joint replacement and surgical reconstruction (partial listing).
This is in stark contrast to studies by Thornbey A et al (7) and Ajay Panwar et al (8) who concluded that marginal to moderate form of Vitamin D deficiency may not be pathogenetically associated with Low Back Pain
. This difference could be because, all the subjects with hypovitaminosis D had an underlying metabolic disease.
Likewise, short-term oral or intramuscular corticosteroids have been found ineffective for acute low back pain
, while benzodiazepines are ineffective for radiculopathy, the experts noted.
National clinical guidelines for non-surgical treatment of patients with recent onset low back pain
or lumbar radiculopathy.
In regard to occupational risk factors, a systematic review of prospective studies published in 2014 found a statistically significant relationship between low back pain
and biomechanical factors: odds ratio (OR) 1.11 (95% confidence interval-CI 1.05-1.18) per 10 kg lifted and OR 1.09 (95%CI 1.03-1.15) per 10 lifts/day.
Conclusion: The mean bone mineral density at spine was found to be lower in patients with chronic low back pain
. It was significantly lower in older patients and those with severe low back pain