(25) To construct the job strain dimension, a combination of high psychological demand and low decision latitude was used.
In relation to the prevalence of exposure to PSRW according to Karasek's demand-control model and Siegrist's effort-reward imbalance model, we found that 35% of the sample reported low decision latitude, 47% faced high psychological demands and 35% experienced low social support.
High-strain jobs have high psychological demands and low decision latitude. High demands produce a state of arousal in a worker that would normally be reflected in such responses as elevated heart rate or adrenaline excretion.
Passive jobs have low psychological demands and low decision latitude. Over time, employees lose their ability to make judgments, solve problems, or face challenges resulting in a gradual atrophying of learned skills and abilities (Karasek & Theorell, 1990).
These results suggest that job strain and burnout are higher in jobs with high demands and low decision latitude. Fox et al.
Consistent with Karasek's model, the combination of high demands and low decision latitude explained blood pressure level to a greater extent than psychological demands or decision latitude on their own.
His core hypothesis was that high job demands were not harmful in themselves, but when accompanied by low decision latitude would result in psychological strain.
Thus the general statement that work characterized by high demands and low decision latitude is detrimental to employee well-being is well supported.
The crucial issue, however, is not simply whether jobs with high demands and low decision latitude are stressful, compared with those with only one or neither of these characteristics, but whether there is an interaction of the kind proposed.
It's true, they point out, that the same problems (high demand, low decision latitude
) can certainly affect executives.