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the process of translating a product idea into a product which can be produced and marketed on a commercial basis. Though design is a creative process it has economic consequences insofar as a product's shape, configuration and performance affect its marketability and its cost of production. In order to achieve high product variety without involving an excessive variety of components, designers often use common, interchangeable parts and design products on a modular basis.

In order to remain competitive, firms need continuously to review the design of their products in the light of new developments in materials and processes. The technique of VALUE ANALYSIS is used to identify possible sources of cost savings without impairing a product's performance. See COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN, NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
Methodologically, SANHANES-1 provides baseline data on a representative sample of the population for future analysis over the longer term (longitudinal design of the survey), a policy approach initially adopted by the USA [5] (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)) and more recently by other countries such as Canada [6] and China, [7] and in Europe.
If the study yields promising results, future trials could follow and expand into a larger cohort study to evaluate OncoCyte's PanC-Dx cancer markers in a case-controlled longitudinal design.
The use of a longitudinal design provided a means to determine the short- and long-term effect of the intervention.
Some papers feature longitudinal design and some emphasize qualitative data.
Strengths of the study include its longitudinal design, large sample size and inclusion of all three forms of intimate partner violence.
To address this issues, it is encouraged to conduct foster care studies though longitudinal design (Orme & Buehler, 2001).
The longitudinal design allowed us to address questions about both stability and change in civic attitudes and beliefs, with data gathered from the same individuals, using the same measures, at two data points.
This longitudinal design addressed a gap in current research, by linking together antecedent life goals and motivations on entry to students' studies, to predict exit achievement scores, to provide information concerning optimising international students' engagement and learning.
A quasi experimental prospective and longitudinal design was applied to patients, from Villa Copahue who approved the test in written form, over 18 years with a history of high respiratory pathology, pharyngitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, laryngitis and low respiratory pathology like bronchitis or pneumonia diagnosis, they should complete six days of treatments.
Using a longitudinal design can decrease this artificially inflated relationship because there is a time gap between the TPB variables and the target behaviors (Elliott et al., 2003).
Finally, Erwin employs a longitudinal design to link alumni self-ratings of personal growth with intellectual development.
(c) Longitudinal Design I - repeated measures of ADL (Exhibit 3c):

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