9 A 50 percent hedge ratio does not take into account that changes in the value of a long-term forward contract
will not be realized for many years, however.
They modeled the relationship between prices of long-term forward contracts
on fuels (such as oil, coal and natural gas), the price of emission allowances and imported electricity and the long-term price of electricity forwards.
"In response," he said, "the international brewing industry placed long-term forward contracts
on the assumption that beer output would continue to rise.
The basic strategy calls for entering into long-term forward contracts
for physical delivery with big grain suppliers such as Minneapolis-based Cargill Inc.
Sure, SAA would not have locked in the predictability of exchange rates for as long, but it would have mitigated the potential accounting impact of marking-to-market such long-term forward contracts
. Furthermore, over time there's more of an opportunity to change the business' operating strategy to adjust to risks.
Reportedly, the company thought it had hedged its long-term forward contracts
to supply American customers with petroleum products at fixed prices by entering into near-term futures contracts to purchase oil.