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group

  1. a collection of people who interact with each other, are aware of each other and see themselves as a group. Very small groups, where each member knows the others well and can interact in a face-to-face manner, are often termed primary groups. Those with a larger membership where individuals are unable to interact directly with all the members are called secondary groups. Much of the work conducted in ORGANIZATIONS is done by groups. Work groups may take the form of either a number of people undertaking a particular task, directed by a manager (see MANAGEMENT) or SUPERVISOR, or a team in which coordination of a range of activities takes place and where status is more equal. The distinction is not a hard and fast one, but groups of production workers are generally referred to as ‘work groups’ whilst groups of managers tend to be referred to as teams. Both are formal groups in that they are consciously established to chieve certain work goals. By contrast, informal groups are those which emerge naturally, are based primarily on friendship, shared attributes or status, and whose membership does not necessarily coincide with that of formal groups. An early indication of the importance of social groups in organizations was provided by the HAWTHORNE STUDIES and exemplified in HUMAN RELATIONS philosophy The Hawthorne researchers found that informal groups could emerge alongside formal groups, with work norms which contradicted those of management. An earlier investigation in the research programme, however, seemed to find that a style of management (see MANAGEMENT STYLE, LEADERSHIP) which displayed an interest in workers could help collections of workers to cohere into effective groups, committed to managerial goals.

    Subsequently managers have adopted a variety of means to influence the activities of groups so as to harness them in support of managerial goals. One such measure is basing pay or bonuses on group output, so as to provide a stimulus to group members to work effectively together and to pressurize recalcitrant members into following group policy. Similarly, the creation of ‘semiautonomous work groups’ (see JOB DESIGN AND REDESIGN) with the power to allocate group members' tasks is designed to heighten both group cohesion and commitment to effective task performance. However, a question that still nevertheless vexes managers is why some groups are effective whilst others are not. For this reason substantial research has been conducted into group development and dynamics (i.e. the stages of growth that they go through and the patterns of interaction within them). One approach has suggested that groups go through four stages of development:

    1. forming (i.e. getting to know each other);
    2. storming (initial conflict as individuals compete for leadership positions and to influence the direction taken by the group);
    3. norming (the establishment of shared values);
    4. performing (where the group utilizes its strengths to perform desired activities). Many groups find difficulty in moving beyond the second and third stages. Team-building exercises, to encourage group cohesion, are an attempt to solve such problems. Research has shown that individual contributions to groups differ, and that in some cases they are effective whilst in others they are not. Management writer Meredith Belbin (1926-) has argued that each individual has a preferred team role and a secondary role which he or she adopts if unable to occupy his or her preferred role. These roles are chairman (setting the agenda), shaper (defining the task), plant (generating ideas), monitor/evaluator (evaluating ideas), company worker (organizing the group), resource investigator (seeking out resources), team worker (maintaining group cohesion) and finisher (ensuring deadlines are kept). On the basis of research of this type managers have attempted to influence group performance by selecting appropriate team members.

    Whilst team working is generally thought to be a useful approach to achieving organizational goals, it can have negative effects. The most damaging of these is groupthink, where pressures towards group conformity stifle creativity. See TEAM BREIFING.

  2. a collection of interrelated JOINT-STOCK COMPANIES which usually consists of a HOLDING COMPANY and a number of SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES and ASSOCIATED COMPANIES which tends to operate as a single business unit.
References in periodicals archive ?
"Avoidable medical errors and infections in hospitals continue to be one of the leading causes of death in the U.S.," said Leah Binder, president and CEO of The Leapfrog Group. "The Leapfrog Hospital Safety Grade provides New Jersey with useful, up-to-date information to further ensure safety and accountability when choosing a hospital."
Among 945 hospitals that voluntarily reported quality data to the Leapfrog Group, 78% performed early elective deliveries less than 5% of the time in 2014.
Hospital volume is the explicit criterion for health care purchasers recommended by Leapfrog group. In accordance with current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) clinical practice guidelines, Leapfrog has established a minimum institutional volume requirement of 400 cases per year for hospitals offering PCI (1, 2).
According to Medscape (2/22, Lowes), Consumer Reports is "working with other consumer-oriented groups such as AARP, the Leapfrog Group, and the National Partnership for Women & Families, as well as Wikipedia, to spread the Choosing Wisely guidelines to patients." American College of Cardiology President William Zoghbi, MD, said, "This public outreach seeks to educate Americans that not every test and procedure is appropriate for a particular condition." Dr.
Amerika Birlesik Devletleri (ABD)'nde "Leapfrog Grubunun (The Leapfrog Group)" yayinladigi raporda, YBU'lerde "gunduz calisma saatleri icinde tam zamanli YB uzman hekiminin bulunmasi, diger saatlerde ise cagri yapildiginda hekimin 5 dakika icinde YBU'ye gelmesi ve bu hekimlerin YB alaninda egitimli olmasi gerektigi" bildirilmistir.
"Women who are induced in the 37th to 38th week have a significantly higher risk of having a cesarean section than mothers who have spontaneous labor," according to the Leapfrog Group. "And, given low rates of vaginal births after cesarean sections, these mothers are likely to have additional cesarean sections with increasing risks."
Other CCNA achievements include an analysis of the Leapfrog Hospital Survey results; the Leapfrog group has woven the IOM recommendations related to nursing leadership into its evaluation of facilities.
Most national studies examining CPOE systems have used data from one of two sources: Health Care Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS) Analytics (see, e.g., Teufel, Kazley, and Basco 2009) or the Leapfrog Group (see, e.g., Hillman and Givens 2005).
An annual survey by the Leapfrog Group found 57,000 early deliveries by induction or scheduled C-section for nonmedical reasons at 773 U.S.
Airport Angel, The Leapfrog Group's global independent airport lounge programme, has announced that it has entered an agreement to provide Barclays Premier Life customers with lounge access.
Patient safety and quality programs, such as the Leapfrog Group Hospital Quality and Safety Survey, consider Beacon achievement in their evaluation process.
Airport Angel, an independent airport lounge programme, has been introduced by The Leapfrog Group, a provider of loyalty, sales promotion, incentive and reward schemes.