In most cases, the switch from leaded to Bi no-lead alloy can be handled with very little gating modifications to existing patterns, and melting and pouring is very similar to the leaded brasses
except for a slight increase in pour temperature.
Current available low-lead alloys offer casting solutions, but vary in their ability to be safely and effectively recycled if they should become cross-contaminated with, or cause cross-contamination of, some of the other low lead alloys or the leaded brasses
. Currently, the value of the resultant cross-contaminated material may be considerably reduced because this material must be refined or diluted when consumed back either by the facility or an ingot maker.
Group 3 alloys include the leaded brasses
and tin bronzes.
Machining--Copper-bismuth alloys have machining characteristics similar to leaded brasses
but may be less forgiving.
These new alloys have machining characteristics similar to the leaded brasses
but require machining fluids for optimum machining performance.
Sand castings simulated by Robert Pehlke and James Wilkes were poured in a variety of materials (carbon steel, aluminum and leaded brasses
Whiting, CANMET/Materials Technology Laboratory, discussed their AFS research to determine the effect of bismuth (Bi) and selenium (Se) additions on the mechanical properties of leaded brasses
(C83600 and C84400).