When the interacting variable is labor intensity
(LINT), which varies at the firm level, we are able to identify the coefficient [[beta].sub.2] after including the Country x Year fixed effects ([[beta].sub.c] x [[beta].sub.t]).
Variables Coefficient t-ratio Dependent variable: land productivity Average distance of parcels -11.40*" -2.51 from homestead (minutes) Cultivated parcel number -13.98*" -2.39 Average area of cultivated -125.84 1.52 parcels owned (Ha) Labor intensity
(man-days/ha) -0.23 -0.45 Oxen power intensity (oxen 28.42*** 3.19 days/ha) Age of HH (years) -6.20* -1.67 Operational capital 2.87*** 3.13 intensity (ETB/ha) Constant 1151.03*** 4.91 [R.sup.2] 0.42 Adjusted [R.sup.2] 0.38 F-ratio 5.56*** Observation 240 Source: our own computation (2016).
From the standpoint of its users, this approach provides the benefit of realistic out-of-the-box performance instead of the labor intensity
associated with machine learning.
Looking more closely across skill and labor intensity
of the firm's sector, some intriguing differences arise.
Furthermore, finding out the progress in labor intensity
over time requires data not only for a single period, but also for the entire succession of periods over which the gross domestic product is tracked.
First, we submit estimation by economic branches of direct and indirect employment generated by the manufacturing industry exports according to their labor intensity
(section Labor content of exports).
Even though she had been a consultant for more than twenty years, when she met Alan eight years ago she had much to learn about how to increase her value while reducing labor intensity
Another factor that may influence the level of markup is the degree of labor intensity
, which is defined as the ratio of the remuneration of employed to total sales.
Arrighi contends there is a world-historical distinction between two forms of market-based development: (1) a market economy historically represented by East Asia, marked by labor intensity
and fairer distribution, in which economic changes occur within a broader social framework; and (2) the capitalist development path of Europe, which seeks capital-intensive industrial gains through domestic dispossession (namely of the peasantry), "extroverted" expansion, and military conquest, in which the engine of economic change tends to destroy the existing social framework.
Let [s.sub.i] denote the elasticity of demand for labor in sector i compared with the aggregate elasticity of demand for labor in the overall economy, and [i.sub.i] denote the relative labor intensity
in the ith sector (this equals the ratio of labor's distributive share in the ith sector to the overall share of labor in the national income, [[theta].sup.L]).
When asked to indicate the degree of labor intensity
present in their facility, a majority of respondents indicate some level of automation in every key materials handling related function or department.
By definition, if we increase labor intensity
through clean-energy investments--if we generate about 17 jobs per $1 million through clean-energy investments versus about five jobs through fossil fuel spending--then we reduce labor productivity in the energy sector through shifting spending toward clean energy.