All kinds of blood cells and Kupffer cells
can be seen in blood vessels and hepatic sinusoids.
Critical Roles of Kupffer Cells
in the Pathogenesis of Alcoholic Liver Disease: From Basic Science to Clinical Trials.
Liver macrophages include mostly Kupffer cells
, which are usual constituents of the liver, but during inflammation, monocytes are recruited from the periphery that can differentiate into macrophages in this tissue (45).
and neutrophils as paracrine regulators of the heme oxygenase-1 gene in hepatocytes after hemorrhagic shock.
In addition, during the ischemia period, the lack of oxygen to hepatocytes causes mitochondrial deenergization, and finally the swelling of the sinusoidal endothelial cells and the Kupffer cells
. The production of reactive oxygen species, activation of Kupffer cells
, upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, resulting in neutrophil-mediated injury are the major factors contributing to inflammation-associated damages (22).
HepatoMune tri-cultures remain viable for at least ten days, retaining both liver cell and Kupffer cell
functionality, and can be used for predicting clinical outcomes.
Human liver Kupffer cells
express CR1, CR3, and CR4 complement receptor antigens.
Preliminary evaluation of cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 (a monocyte cell line) and ImKC (a Kupffer cell
line) cells and genotoxicity in E.
Studies have suggested that IL-17 stimulate Kupffer cells
to express inflammatory cytokines like IL-1[beta], TNF-[alpha], IL-6, and profibrogenic cytokine TGF-[beta] in BDL rats .
Occasionally, the prominent nuclei of von Kupffer cells
were observed (Figure 2(a)).
Inset (400x): phagocytosis of blood cells by Kupffer cells
. (c) Bone marrow (40x) displays appropriate cellularity for age with a slight reactive shift.
Chen, "Depletion of Kupffer cells
attenuates systemic insulin resistance, inflammation and improves liver autophagy in high-fat diet fed mice," Endocrine Journal, vol.