The fatty acid degradation involves P-oxidation in glyoxysomes, glyoxylate cycle, Krebs cycle
, part of gluconeogenesis and glycolysis, the pyruvate decarboxylation and again Krebs cycle
I reviewed Krebs cycle
data for an additional 315 patients seen since my 2004 Townsend report.
The GDH elevation in all tissues (Table I) also suggests the possibility of a need for a-ketoglutarate in the Krebs cycle
for the liberation of energy.
The Krebs cycle
is the metabolic pathway that takes carbohydrates, proteins, and fats and converts them into carbon dioxide and water to generate a usable form of energy for the body.
Fermentation produces less ATP than aerobic respiration because it does not use the Krebs cycle
and the ETC.
The matrix between the cristae holds the enzymes responsible for the Krebs cycle
, and the surface of the cristae holds the enzymes responsible for electron transport.
The low expression levels of elongation factor Tu in the livers of ketotic cows minimize protein synthesis, indicating that most glucogenic amino acids take part in the Krebs cycle
and gluconeogenesis, which has limited the capacity for protein synthesis so that the protein synthetic machinery is down-regulated.
The unique position of SDH on the matrix side of the inner mitochondrial membrane enables SDH to participate in both the Krebs cycle
and the electron transport chain.
The evolving metabolomic tools that allow us to simultaneous study multiple metabolic pathways have been used mainly in targeted studies of candidate alternate pathways such as studies of the involvement of the Krebs cycle
in PA and MMA.
For example, the vitamin B complex--thiamine, riboflavin and niacin--has a critical role in the Krebs cycle
via which the required energy is generated.
At times, his reductionism pushes the envelope a bit: "We recognize that life is a word loosely applied to a collection of processes--DNA replication and transcription, Krebs cycle
, Lactic acid cycle, etc.
Our working hypothesis is that tryptamine inhibits succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), a Krebs cycle
enzyme that converts succinate to fumerate ultimately increasing ATP levels.