In view of our data with palladium [alpha]-lipoic acid formulation on the enhanced enzymatic activities of Krebs cycle
and electron transport chain enzymes in animals, anti-oxidant activity and the ability of this formulation to repair DNA, we had decided, as a preliminary step, to investigate its usefulness in ameliorating the fatigue conditions in 15 MS patients.
Alpha-ketoglutarate, an endogenous intermediate in the Krebs cycle
, is a molecule involved in cellular energetics and amino acid metabolism.
This effect can be implemented via using of AKG for synthesis of glycogenic amino acids such as glutamine [1,4] or via metabolizing AKG in Krebs cycle
to oxaloacetate, a well-known precursor in glucose biogenesis.
ATP amount (x) resulting from glyoxysomal degradation of fatty acids with carbon number multiple of 4, followed by gluconeogenesis until phosphoenolpyruvate and its catabolism, to produce energy, may be calculated by the sum of ATP rates produced and consumed in [beta]-oxidation ([ATP.sub.[beta]-OX]), glyoxylate cycle ([ATP.sub.C GLYOX]), Krebs cycle
([ATP.sub.C KREBS) gluconeogenesis ([ATP.sub.OXAL-PEP]) and glycolysis /Krebs cycle again ([ATP.sub.PEP-CO2]), according to Equation (1):
Also, an excess of [1, 2-[sup.13][C.sub.2]]glucose over [1, 2, 3-[sup.13]C] glucose isotopomers has been quantified by [sup.13]C NMR in mice administered with [U-[sup.13]C]propionate [13, 14], an alternative gluconeogenic substrate that, like [U-[sub.13]C]lactate, is also metabolized to glucose via the hepatic Krebs cycle
This suggests the active trans-deamination of amino acids for the incorporation of ketoacids into the Krebs cycle
in order to release the energy required for the synthesis of new proteins (Sivaramakrishna and Radhakrishnaiah 1998).
This energy-producing cycle -- known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle
-- includes a series of chemical reactions that are used for metabolism by most forms of life, including bacteria, molds, protozoa and animals.
To keep it simple, there are three main metabolic pathways we use to perform physical activity--the phosphagen pathway, the glycolytic pathway, and the oxidative pathway--and one pathway to convert food into energy--the citric acid, or Krebs cycle
. How well you condition your body to use each pathway will determine how well you perform short-duration, high-intensity exercises (like a one rep max deadlift), medium-duration, medium-intensity (2 minutes of sit-ups), or long-duration, low-intensity (6-mile run) exercises.
Swimming works on the Krebs Cycle
. This is the system within the body which takes oxygen across the lungs and into the blood removing lactic acid from the muscle.
There are three major reactions that occur in cellular respiration: glycolysis, the Krebs cycle
, and the electron transport chain (ETC).
Aerobic respiration proceeds in three major phases: (1) glycolysis, (2) the Krebs cycle
, and (3) electron transport.
The resultant high concentrations of acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl CoA would depress the level of ACAT and generate more [beta]-hydroxybutyric acid; high concentrations of acetyl-CoA would also accelerate the Krebs Cycle
and produce more ATP, which is stored as phosphocreatine, as a consequence of increased expression of creatine kinase.