Considering in turn topical syntheses and case studies, they discuss such aspects as Mexico City, Merida, and the world: Kondratieff waves
on the periphery; agrarian ecology and historical contingency in landscape change; material culture, status, and identity in post-independence Central Mexico: urban and rural dimensions; cross-cultural interactions and Lacandon ethnogenesis in the Southern Maya Lowland frontier AD 1400 to the present; and the underlying aim of historical archaeology.
Phases of Economic Growth, 1850-1973: Kondratieff Waves and Kuznets Swings.
Schumpeter's magnum opus on Business Cycles (1939) was concerned with the two- to three-year Kitchin inventory cycle, the ten-year Juglar trade cycle, and the fifty- to sixty-year Kondratieff wave. Postwar scholars devoted much attention to the newly discovered Kuznets swing of approximately twenty years' duration and showed little faith or interest in the Kondratieff wave; but the end of the long postwar boom seems to have generated something of a Kondratieff revival, at least on the fringes of the discipline.
In economic theory there is a generally accepted idea of the existence of four periodic processes: Kitchin and Juglar cycles, Kuznets rhythms and Kondratieff waves. It is generally accepted that they have different economic nature (Abramovitz, 1961; Akerman, 1932; Ayres, 2006; Bernstein, 1940; Dator, 2006; Dickson, 1983; Diebolt & Doliger, 2006, 2008; Forrester, 1977; Freeman, 1987; Glazyev, 1993; Grinin, Korotayev, & Malkov, 2010; Hirooka, 2006; Juglar, 1862; Kitchin, 1923; Kondratieff, 1922; 1925; 1926; 1928; 1935; 1984; 2002; Kuznets, 1930; Maevskiy, 1997; Mensch, 1979; Modelski & Thompson, 1996; Modelski, 2001; 2006; Papenhausen, 2008; Rumyantseva, 2003; Shiode et al., 2004; Silberling, 1943; Solomou, 1989; Tylecote, 1992; Van Duijn, 1983; Yakovets, 2001).
Chaldaeva & Kilyachkov (2012) showed that this approximation explains the emergence of Kitchin and Juglar economic cycles (Kitchin, 1923; Juglar, 1862), Kuznets rhythms (Kuznets, 1930) and Kondratieff waves (Kondratieff, 1922; 1925; 1926; 1935) as a bifurcation of some basic cycle (T [approximately equal to] 3 years).