But the origins of derogatory stereotypes about Carib (and later, Kalinago and Garifuna) people are found much earlier, in the writings of Christopher Columbus.
By the sixteenth century these two ethnic groups had intermingled to the point that they were recognized as one people, known to Europeans as the "Island Caribs" and to themselves as Kalinago (Mohammed 119).
Vincent's cultural milieu, and by the mid-1700s Africans and Kalinago had commingled to the point that Europeans began referring to them as another distinct cultural group, the Black Caribs (or Garinagu) who quickly overpowered the island's Kalinago inhabitants.
(4) Whatever the case, travelers and anthropologists who spent time in Kalinago communities unanimously reported that practices of cannibalism had ceased by the end of the eighteenth century (Hulme and Whitehead 327-334).
Vincent and the Grenadines, as in many other Caribbean nations, neo-colonialism appears in school curricula which, until recently, included few (if any) lessons about Kalinago history or culture.
Pirates of the Caribbean's' presentation of Caribbean cannibals is troublesome on its own, but the fact that Disney employed actual Kalinago people to act out harmful stereotypes about their ancestors created ethical problems on an entirely different level, as evidenced by the protests from the Kalinago/Garifuna community.
Yurumein includes excerpts of interviews with Vincentian Kalinago discussing the continued discrimination they face because of their ethnicity, the derogatory nature of the name "Carib," and the ways that St.
For example, Augustine Sutherland, a Vincentian Kalinago, has made a great effort to educate himself about his ancestry.
Due to its presentation of Garifuna men and women coming to grips with this historical trauma and its poignant portrayal of Kalinago fighting to understand their heritage, Yurumein has sparked deeply emotional reactions in many Kalinago/Garifuna viewers.
As stated by Ellis, widespread participation is vital to cultural reclamation efforts for Vincentian Kalinago (Ellis 2014).
(1) Throughout this paper, I use the name "Kalinago" to refer to Island Caribs and descendants of Island Caribs who dwell in St.
3: The Kalinago people as depicted in Agostino Brunias's painting, A Family of Charaibes in the Island of St.