The careers of William Cullen, Joseph Black
, Joseph Priestley, and Humphrey Davy can now be seen as paradigms of a discipline that could only make its discoveries known and accepted by becoming part of public culture.
For him, when a computer program wins at chess or "proves" some theorems from Russell and Whitehead's Principia, this is tantamount to the computer "thinking." Throughout his career, Simon has taken to making hyperbolic claims for computers, the latest being that machines can themselves "discover" scientific laws and theories, like Kepler's Third Law or Joseph Black
's laws of temperature equilibrium.(3) What this means in practice is programming about 97% of the research process into a computer, and letting it iterate in on the "final" result, rather like the Borges' story of Pierre Menard wanting to rewrite the Quixote on his own.(4) Such exaggerated claims are endemic to AI; but it is also important to note that Simon's is not the only approach to intelligence in the AI community.
's discovery of carbon dioxide in 1754 had led to the realization that air was a combination of different gases, and in 1766 Henry Cavendish isolated hydrogen and determined that it had a very low density.
* Joseph Black
bridged the gap between Equations 1 and 2 by clearly distinguishing between heat and temperature, and by his experimental results, which demonstrated that specific heat depends litle on temperature.
And physicist Joseph Black
was the first to isolate pure carbon dioxide, a huge step forward in chemistry and in biology.