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Gainful employment. Strictly speaking, a job refers to employment by another person or company, but the word is often used to describe self-employment as well. Because individuals are compensated for their work at their jobs, these are considered necessary for a society to function. According to Keynesian economics, the money one earns from a job can create more jobs because the money creates demand for goods and services that must be provided. Supply-side economics, on the other hand, maintains that lower taxes are best for job creation.


  1. a work task or series of work tasks to be performed. For factory operatives the work tasks are often clearly defined as a specific set of machining or assembly operations. By contrast, at senior management level, work tasks are less clearly defined and managers have more discretion as to the range of tasks to be performed and how they are performed.
  2. a unit of good or service for which costs can be ascertained. The job or cost unit could consist of a single order. Alternatively, the job or cost unit could be a batch or group of identical products passing together through production.


a work task or series of work tasks to be performed in order to produce a good or service. Jobs differ in terms of skills, physical fitness, personality, etc., requirements, and in terms of the decision-making autonomy and responsibilities involved. Some jobs involve a wide-ranging set of work tasks while others may be broken down into a number of narrowly defined activities through a ‘division of labour’. Such SPECIALIZATION is often conducive to achieving high levels of labour PRODUCTIVITY in industries such as motor-car assembly that utilize mass production techniques. In other cases, productivity may be enhanced by grouping together larger numbers of work tasks to form individual jobs. Job design has an important effect on job satisfaction and thus levels of absenteeism, labour turnover, industrial disputes, etc., which affect productivity In some instances the process of specialization has been partially reversed by programmes of job enlargement (adding additional tasks to provide greater variety), 288

job rotation (where workers rotate jobs to reduce monotony) and job enrichment (where workers are given greater scope in deciding how tasks should be performed).

References in periodicals archive ?
41 percent job growth in the key industries of transportation, utilities and healthcare
These markets also have job growth above the national average," Johnsey said.
A year ago, the pattern was different: in July 2013, home price changes were more highly correlated with the peak-to-trough price decline than with job growth (year-over-year in December 2012).
But if you look at the metropolitan areas that led the pack in terms of net job growth, they tended to have younger business establishments, on average, than those that lagged behind.
The study also showed that only two census tracts in the "high job growth region" have housing defined as "affordable.
At a Bloomberg / Google breakfast, a new study was released by the Bay Area Council Economic Institute (BACEI) and Engine Advocacy that found that technology industries are fueling job growth across the country.
Combine the aforementioned with rising living expenses related to local/states taxes, food, insurance, and fuel/energy, and the result is tight budgets for many families - and in some cases no disposable income for households - another constraint on GDP growth and job growth.
economy over the last year and Gross Domestic Product, the most common measure of the overall economy, has shown some volatility," commented Dawn McLaren, an economist with the JPMorgan Chase Economic Outlook Center, which publishes the monthly Job Growth Update and its quarterly companion, the National Consensus Forecast of Labor Employment, Compensation and Productivity.
7 percent of California's non-farm job growth came from three housing-related industries -- residential construction, residential speciality trade contracting and real estate.
Has the state's low jobless rate - which translates into higher hiring and other employee-related costs for the state's employers - helped funnel the job growth occurring nationwide to other states?
Through this data, we have insight into the performance of industries and metro areas across the United States, and by comparing this information against Trulia's findings we see the correlation between job growth and home ownership.