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An investment company is a firm that offers open-end funds, called mutual funds, closed-end funds, sometimes called investment trusts, or exchange traded funds to the public.
By describing a company offering the funds as an investment company, it's easier to distinguish the company from the funds that it offers.
For example, a single investment company might offer an aggressive-growth fund, a growth and income fund, a US Treasury bond fund, and a money market fund.
Or a closed-end investment company might offer an international fund focused on a single country, such as Ireland, or a region, such as Latin America.